Sunday, May 24, 2009

DrawWorks Brake System Training Course (Part I)

DW Brake System
Training Course

1- Course Objectives
2- Introduction
3- Hydraulic Pumps and Pressure Regulation
4- Pneumatics
5- Types of control valve
a. Poppet valves
b. Spool valves
c. Pilot-operated valves
d. Check valves
e. Shuttle a valves
f. Proportional valves
6 - The DW Brake System construction
7 - The Brake System construction
8 - The Brake System Operation
9 - The Brake System Maintenance and Troubleshooting

1. Course Objectives
To understand:
• The operation of the valves, pumps and hydraulic components of the DW Brake System.
• The Hydraulic concepts behind the DW Brake System.
• The DW Brake System Construction
• The DW Brake System Operation
• The DW Brake System Maintenance and Troubleshooting
• Complete one written test & achieve an overall pass mark of 80%

2. Introduction
Most industrial processes require objects or substances to be moved from one location to another or a force to be applied to hold, shape or compress a product. Such activities are performed by Prime Movers; the workhorses of manufacturing industries. In many locations all prime movers are electrical. Rotary motions can be provided by simple motors, and linear motion can be obtained from rotary motion by devices such as screw jacks or rack and pinions. Where a pure force or a short linear stroke is required a solenoid may be used (although there are limits to the force that can be obtained by this means).
Electrical devices are not; however, the only means of providing prime movers. Enclosed fluids (both liquids and gases) can also be used to convey energy from one location to another and, consequently, to produce rotary or linear motion or apply a force. Fluid-based systems using liquids as transmission media are called hydraulic systems (from the Greek words hydra for water and aulos for a pipe; descriptions which imply fluids are water although oils are more commonly used). Gas-based systems are called Pneumatic systems (from the Greek pneumn for wind or breath). The most common gas is simply compressed air. although nitrogen is occasionally used.
2.1. Hydraulic Fundamental Principles (Pascal`s law)

Figure (1) Forces and pressure in closed tanks
· Pressure in an enclosed fluid can be considered uniform throughout a practical system.
· This equality of pressure is known as Pascal's law, and is illustrated in Figure (1) where a force of 5 kgf is applied to a piston of area 2 cm2

. This produces a pressure of 2.5 kgf cm-2 at every point within the fluid, which acts with equal force per unit area on the walls of the system.

Figure (2) Mechanical advantage

· This expression shows an enclosed fluid may be used to magnify a force.
· In Figure (2) a load of 2000 kg is sitting on a piston of area 500 cm2 (about 12 cm radius). The smaller piston has an area of 2 cm2.
· An applied force f given by;

will cause the 2000 kg load to rise.
· This is called to be a mechanical advantage of 250. Energy must, however, be conserved.

· To illustrate this, suppose the left hand piston moves down by 100 cm (one meter).
· Because we have assumed the fluid is incompressible, a volume of liquid 200 cm2 is transferred from the left hand cylinder to the fight hand cylinder, causing the load to rise by just 0.4 cm.
· So, although we have a force magnification of 250, we have a movement reduction of the same factor.
· Because work is given by the product of force and the distance moved, the force is magnified and the distance moved reduced by the same factor, giving conservation of energy.

3. Hydraulic Pumps and Pressure Regulation
· A hydraulic pump (Fig. 3) takes oil from a tank and delivers it to the rest of the hydraulic circuit. In doing so it raises oil pressure to the required level. The operation of such a pump is illustrated in Figure 3.a.
· On hydraulic circuit diagrams a pump is represented by the symbol of Figure 3.b, with the arrowhead showing the direction of flow.
· Hydraulic pumps are generally driven at constant speed by a three phase AC induction motor rotating at 1500 rpm in the UK (with a 50 Hz supply) and at 1200 or 1800 rpm in the USA (with a 60 Hz supply).
· Often pump and motor are supplied as one combined unit. As an AC motor requires some form of starter, the complete arrangement illustrated in Figure 3. c is needed.
3.1. Pump Types
There are two types of pump illustrated in Figure 4.

1- Hydrodynamic Pump (Figure 4.a, )
Fluid is drawn into the axis of the pump, and flung out to the periphery by centrifugal force. Flow of fluid into the load maintains pressure at the pump exit. Should the pump stop, however, there is a direct route from outlet back to inlet and the pressure rapidly decays away. Fluid leakage will also occur past

Figure (3) The hydraulic pump

Figure (4) Types of Hydraulic Pumps

the vanes, so pump delivery will vary according to outlet pressure.
Hydrodynamic pumps (Fig. 4.a), are primarily used to shift fluid from one location to another at relatively low pressures.

2- Positive Displacement (hydrostatic Pump (Figure 4.b)
As the piston is driven down, the inlet valve opens and a volume of fluid (determined by the cross section area of the piston and the length of stroke) is drawn into the cylinder.
Next, the piston is driven up with the inlet valve closed and the outlet valve open, driving the same volume of fluid to the pump outlet.
Should the pump stop, one of the two valves will always be closed, so there is no route for fluid to leak back. Exit pressure is therefore maintained (assuming there are no downstream return routes).
More important, though, is the fact that the pump delivers a fixed volume of fluid from inlet to outlet each cycle regardless of pressure at the outlet port. Unlike the hydrodynamic pump described earlier, a piston pump has no inherent maximum pressure determined by pump leakage: if it drives into a dead end load with no return route (as can easily occur in an inactive hydraulic system with all valves closed) the pressure rises continuously with each pump stroke until either piping or the pump itself fails.

3.2. Pump Power

Fig. (5)Derivation of pump power

The motor power required to drive a pump is determined by the pump capacity and working pressure.

In Figure 5, a pump forces fluid along a pipe of area A against a pressure P, moving fluid a distance d in time T. The force is PA, which, when substituted into above Eq.


Figure (6) Filter Position
Dirt in a hydraulic system causes sticking valves, failure of seals and premature wear. Even particles of dirt as small as 20 microns can cause damage.
Filters are used to prevent dirt entering the vulnerable parts of the system, and are generally specified in microns or meshes per linear inch (sieve number).
See the three filter positions shown in Fig. 6

4. Pneumatics
4.1. Stages of air treatment
Air in a pneumatic system must be clean and dry to reduce wear and extend maintenance periods. Atmospheric air contains many harmful impurities (smoke, dust, water vapour) and needs treatment before it can be used.
In general, this treatment falls into three distinct stages, shown in Figure (7).
First, inlet filtering removes particles which can damage the air compressor.
Next, there is the need to dry the air to reduce humidity . This is normally performed between the compressor and the receiver and is termed primary air treatment.
Finally; the treatment is performed local to the duties to be performed, and consists of further steps to remove moisture and dirt and the introduction of a fine oil mist to aid lubrication.

Fig. 7 Three stages of air treatment

4.2. Air Dryers

Figure (8) Air filter and water trap
Air flow through the unit undergoes a sudden reversal of direction and a deflector cone swirls the air (Figure 8-b). Both of these cause heavier water particles to be flung out to the walls of the separator and to collect in the trap bottom from where they can be drained.
Water traps are usually represented on circuit diagrams by the symbol of Figure 8-c.

Figure (9) Refrigerated Dryer
Dew point can be lowered further with a refrigerated dryer, the layout of which is illustrated in Figure 9. This chills the air to just above 0~ condensing almost all the water out and collecting the condensate in the separator. Efficiency of the unit is improved with a second heat exchanger in which cold dry air leaving the dryer pre-chills incoming air. Air leaving the dryer has a dew point similar to the temperature in the main heat exchanger.

5. Types of Control Valves
Generally; the load is connected to ports labeled A, B and the pressure supply (from pump or compressor) to port P. In the hydraulic valve, fluid is returned to the tank from port T. In the pneumatic valve return air is vented from port R. See Figure 10.

Figure (10) Valves in a pneumatic and hydraulic system
Figure 11 shows internal operation of valves. To extend the ram, ports P and B are connected to deliver fluid and ports A and T connected to return fluid. To retract the ram, ports P and A are connected to deliver fluid and ports B and T to return fluid.

Figure (11) Internal valve operation
Another consideration is the number of control positions. Figure 12 shows two possible control schemes. In Figure 12-a, the ram is controlled by a lever with two positions; extend or retract. This valve has two control positions (and the ram simply drives to one end or other of its stroke).
The valve in Figure 12-b has three positions; extend, off, retract. Not surprisingly the valve in Figure 12-a is called a two position valve, while that in Figure 12-b is a three position valve.

Figure (12) Valve control positions
A complete valve description needs;
1- Number of Ports
2- Number of positions and
3- Action
Figure 13 shows one possible action for the 4/3 valve (Port/Position).This unload the pump back to the tank (without need of a separate loading valve), while leaving the ram locked in position.

Figure (13) One possible valve action for a 4/3 valve
Other possible arrangements may block all four ports in the off position (to maintain pressure), or connect ports A, B and T (to leave the ram free in the off position).
5.1 Valve Symbols
Designations given to ports are normally as shown:

In Figure 14-a, for example fluid is delivered from port P to port A and returned from port B to port T when the valve is in its normal state a. In state b, flow is reversed.

Shut off positions are represented by T, as shown by the central position of the valve in Figure 14-b.

The internal flow paths can be represented as shown in Figure 14-c. This latter valve, incidentally, vents the load in the off position.

In pneumatic systems, lines commonly vent to atmosphere directly at the valve, as shown by port R in Figure 14-d.

Figure (14) Valve symbols
Figure 15-a shows symbols for the various ways in which valves can be operated. Figure 15-b thus represents a 4/2 valve operated by a pushbutton. With the pushbutton depressed the ram extends. With the pushbutton released, the spring pushes the valve to position a and the ram retracts. Actuation symbols can be combined. Figure 15-c represents a solenoid-operated 4/3 valve, with spring return to centre

5.2 Poppet valves

5.2 Spool valves

5.3 Pilot-operated Valves

With large capacity pneumatic valves (particularly poppet valves) and most hydraulic valves, the operating force required to move the valve can be large. If the required force is too large for a solenoid or manual operation, a two-stage process called pilot operation is used.

5.4 Check Valves
Check valves only allow flow in one direction. The simplest construction is the ball and seat arrangement of the valve in Figure, commonly used in pneumatic systems. Free flow direction is normally marked with an arrow on the valve casing.

5.5 Shuttle Valves
A shuttle valve, also known as a double check valve, allows pressure in a line to be obtained from alternative sources.
It is primarily a pneumatic device and is rarely found in hydraulic circuits.
Construction is very simple and consists of a ball inside a cylinder, as shown in the Figure. If pressure is applied to port X, the ball is blown to the fight blocking port Y and linking ports X and A.
Similarly, pressure to port Y alone connects ports Y and A and blocks port X. The symbol of a shuttle valve is given in Figure.

5.5 Proportional Valves
The solenoid valves described so far act, to some extent, like an electrical switch, i.e. they can be On or Off. In many applications it is required to remotely control speed, pressure or force via an electrical signal. This function is provided by proportional valves.
A typical two position solenoid is only required to move the spool between 0 and 100% stroke against the restoring force of a spring. To ensure predictable movement between the end positions the solenoid must also increase its force as the spool moves to ensure the solenoid force is larger than the increasing opposing spring force at all positions.

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Monday, April 13, 2009

Alignment Handout

Factors Influencing Alignment procedure
1- Eccentricity (runout)
· This might be done by a dial gauge

2- Baseplate of machines (soft-foot)
· Machines feet must be mounted perfectly horizontal with the baseplate.
· The contact between the baseplate and the feet can be checked with a set of shims or with feeler gages.
· During a new installation,
o it is essential to use accurate straight edges and levels to make sure that all feet of the machine are on the same plane.
· The accepted tolerance level for these planes is usually 0.1 mm.
· Simple tests for soft-foot are by setting up the dial gage (at fixed place) and place a shim under one front foot and the reading noted.
· It is then removed and placed under the next front foot. The reading should be the same.
· The same procedure must be repeated for the rear feet.

3- Axial position of machines
· The axial position of shaft ends is referred to as the distance between shaft ends (DBSE).
· Normally, most couplings allow a large tolerance in the axial position.
· However, for couplings like disk couplings, an error in the axial position result in;
o places the discs under stress and
o decreases their life.
o may generate axial thrusts, which ultimately add extra load to the machine’s thrust bearings.
· It is therefore necessary to take this aspect into consideration, especially when machines operate at high temperatures.

4- SAG
· For spacer couplings, a sag (deflection) check should be done on the indicator bracket to be used for the alignment.
· The DBSE in these couplings may be long, and when alignment brackets are clamped to one hub and extended to the other hub, there is a tendency for them to sag.
· This sag can alter the dial gage readings, leading to misinterpretation and errors.
· For bracket lengths larger than 25–30 cm, it is essential to provide additional stiffness to minimize sag.
· It is therefore necessary to perform a sag check of the bracket.
· A sag check is essential only for aligning horizontal machines, because the sag is caused by gravity due to the weight of the bracket.

Alignment techniques
· There are many methods to align a machine. The appropriate method is selected based on;
Ø the type of machine,
Ø rotational speed,
Ø the machine’s importance & production,
Ø the maintenance policy and
Ø alignment tolerances.

· Machines “I”
{Which are not fragile (breakable) in their construction}.
Ø rotating at less than 1500 rpm,
Ø lower horsepower range,
Use merely a straight edge to align machines.
Considering all aspects, it is acceptable to align them to the range of 0.3–0.8 mm.

Machines “II”
{Majority of machines}
Fragile (breakable) in their construction (mechanical seals and expansion bellows)
Machines operating at;
Ø speeds of 3000 rpm and higher,
Ø in the medium power range of 20 kW–1 MW
should be aligned within 0.1 mm.
· This requirement necessitates the use of comparators like dial gages, and methods with minimum residual errors.

Alignment conventions using a dial indicator
· The dial gage is the most common comparator used during alignment.
· The dial gage functions based on the rack-and-pinion principle. The conventions that are followed are shown in Figure 6.9.
· When the spring is compressed, the dial pointer is pressed inward and the clock needle moves clockwise, indicating a positive reading.
· When the pointer moves outwards, the clock needle moves counter clockwise, indicating a negative reading.
· It is recommended to jog the pointer from the top to ensure that it is not stuck.

The dial gage functions based on the rack-and-pinion principle. The conventions that are followed are shown in Figure 6.9.

Figure 6.9 Dial indicator

Another convention for alignment readings in the horizontal plane is shown in Figure 6.10.

Figure 6.10 Alignment readings in the horizontal plane

Thus, the convention maintains left and right when standing behind the driver, facing the driver.
Left and right readings on the dial gage are recorded accordingly.

Shaft setup for alignment
· The connection to the shaft must be simple and rigid.
· The clamp shown in Figure 6.11 is a good example. Magnetic clamps must be avoided, because their attachments are not reliable.

Figure 6.11 Shaft setup for alignment

· There are many types of alignment brackets available in the market, and a typical one is shown in Figure 6.12.

· The guiding principle for the selection of brackets is that they should be rigid with minimal sag (see the rod diameters).

Figure 6.12 Alignment brackets

Types of misalignment
Misalignment in machines is due to;
· angularity and
· offset,
· but in almost all cases the misalignment of machines is a combination of both.

i- Angularity
· is the difference between the values on the comparator (dial gage) for a half revolution”180o” (because for one complete revolution we return to the original position).
· For a given angular misalignment, angularity depends on the diameter described by the dial gage.
· It can be seen that when d1 increases to d2, p1 increases with the same ratio to p2. This value must be fixed when a certain tolerance is given (Figure 6.13).

Figure 6.13 Angularity (parallelism)

Angle of misalignment:

Where p1, p2 = dial gage reading when rotated by 180°; d1, d2 = diameters described by the dial gage.

ii- Offset (concentricity),
· The offset is the radius of rotation for the dial gage, as indicated in Figure 6.14.

Concentricity =1/2 dial gage reading

· The dial gage readings would indicate the diameter, and hence should be reduced by half to obtain the true offset reading.

Figure 6.14 Radial misalignment (concentricity)

However, as mentioned before, in practice misalignment of machines is due to a combination of both factors, as depicted in Figure 6.15.

Figure 6.15 Misalignment of shafts with angularity and offset

Two dial method of alignment
The necessary steps to align a machine are:
1. The first step is to loosen the coupling bolts so there is no restriction during the measurement of angularity of the existing misalignment.
2. A feeler gage is then run through the coupling hubs to ensure that the hubs are not touching.
The necessary steps to align a machine are:
i- The radial test (R) to measure the OFFSET ;
· The dial gage is attached as shown in Figure 6.16.
· The test done in the vertical and horizontal planes.
· To obtain the offsets in both planes, four readings will be required.
1. Top, bottom, left and right
2. Clock positions – 12 o’clock, 3 o’clock, 6 o’clock and 9 o’clock positions.
· The dial gage here generally placed on the top (12 o’clock) position, and the zero on the scale is turned to coincide with the needle.
· The pointer must be jogged to ensure that it is free and that the readings are repeatable.

Figure 6.16 Dial gage setup at top position. The difference in readings after 180

indicates offset in vertical or horizontal planes

· Shafts are turned manually through one complete revolution, and readings at every quadrant (quarter) are noted.
· The readings recorded at the four locations are written down in the format shown below (fig. 6.17).
· The ‘R’ in Figure 6.17 indicates that these are radial readings, meant for offset corrections.

Figure 6.17Readings in mils

ii- The Facial reading to measure the ANGULARITY;
· The clamp is re-adjusted with the dial gage pointer now set to measure the angularity, as shown in Figure 6.18.
· The pointer (as shown in the figure) is now parallel to the axes of the shafts.
· Just like the offset, the angularity must be measured in horizontal and vertical planes as well.
· The dial gage is rotated through one complete revolution and stopped at every quadrant to make a note of the readings.

Figure 6.18 Dial gage setup at top position. The difference of readings
after 180° indicates angularity in vertical or horizontal planes

· The ‘F’ in Figure 6.19 indicates that these are facial readings, meant for angularity corrections.

Figure 6.19 The ‘F’ indicates facial readings
(note the diameter described by the dial gage)

iii-Steps to fix the alignment
· The next step is to convert these values of (R) and (F) to appropriate shim thickness that should be added or removed to fix the alignment.
To proceed to the next step, additional information about the location of the front and the rear feet from the dial gage pointer is required.

*In Figure 6.20
· The pump is the fixed machine (FM) and the motor is the machine to be shimmed (MTBS).
· This implies that all the corrections will be done by adding and removing shims under the motor feet. The pump will not be disturbed from its position.
· The distance from the pointer of the dial gage to the front foot (FF) of the motor is designated as ‘A’.
· The distance of the rear foot (RF) to the dial gage pointer is designated as ‘B’.

Figure 6.20 Shimming Calculation

· Two sets of calculations are required. One set for the vertical plane and the other for the horizontal plane.

1. Calculations for the vertical plane
*Offset correction
· Let us say the offset readings for the top and bottom positions are 0 and -5 mils, respectively.
· If the dial gage pointer is on the motor (MTBS) and the dial gage is rotating, hence the –ve and +ve signs are as shown in (figure 6.9).
· The negative sign indicates that the motor shaft is higher than the pump shaft.
· It is higher by half the final reading minus the initial readings. Thus:

Hence, shims of 2.5 mils should be removed from the front and rear feet of the MOTOR.

*Angularity correction
· Let us say the angularity readings for the top and bottom readings were 0 and - 2 mils, respectively.
· If the dial gage pointer is touching the rear face of the motor coupling hub see (figure 6.9).
· The negative sign indicates that the coupling has a narrower gap at the bottom than at the top.
The dial measures at (scribes) a circle of 5 in.

The angle

Because the angle is very small, the tan inverse function can be neglected:
Hence, P1=.002 in.

(The formula would reverse if the pointer is touching the front face of the coupling hub, which is normally the case when there is a long spacer between the couplings.)
= 0.0004 radian
=0.4 milli-radians = 0.0004´ (180/p) = (0.023o)

· This angle “θ” is also the angle of inclination of the motor axis w.r.t. the pump axis.

· Line AB is the existing axis inclination of the motor (Figure 6.21).
· It must be lifted by amount x at the FF (front foot) location and by y at the RF (rear foot) location.

Figure 6.21 Calculating X and Y values

· The x and y values are calculated as follows;
x and y are approximated as arcs and the following formula can be used:
S = r × θ

S = arc length;
r = radius;
θ = included angle in milli-radians.

Final- Vertical

The final results should include corrections for both the offset and the angular corrections.
At point A{Front Foot FF}:
Offset results – remove shims of 2.5 mils
Angularity results – add shims of 3.2 mils
Thus, insert shims of 0.7 mils under the front foot of the motor.

At point B{Rear Foot RF}:
Offset results – remove shims of 2.5 mils
Angularity results – add shims of 7.2 mils
Thus, insert shims of 4.7 mils under the rear feet of the motor.

Calculations for the horizontal plane
The dial gauge is: from behind the motor, left is the initial reading and right is the final reading.
*Offset calculations:
Left reading: +1 mils
Right reading: - 6 mils
Pointer on left;
+1 means the measured point on motor shaft is to the left by “1”
Pointer on the right;
- 6 means the measured point on motor shaft is to the left by “6”
{To imagine this, just draw the dial gage and its direction}
· Because the dial pointer is on the motor shaft, a negative reading indicates that the motor shaft axis is to the left of the pump shaft axis.

Offset = (Final reading – Initial reading) /2

Move points A and B of the motor to the right by 3.5 mils.

*Angular calculations:
Left reading: + 4 mils
Right reading: - 6 mils
+ 4 means that the left point of the motor hub is away to the pump hub by “4”.
- 6 means that the right point of the motor hub is close from the pump hub by “6”.
{To imagine this, just draw the dial gage and its direction}

As the dial pointer touches the rear face of the motor coupling hub, the shaft axis resembles what is shown in Figure 6.22.
In this case:
mils = 0.01 inch.

= 0.002 radians (0.114o)
= 2 milli-radians

x = 2 ´ 8 = 16 mils – move to the left;
y = 2 ´18 = 36 mils – move to the left.

Figure 6.22

Final- Horizontal

At point A{Front Foot FF}:
Offset results – move 3.5 mils to the right
Angularity results – move 16 mils to the left
Thus, move to the left by 12.5 mils.

At point B {Rear Foot RF}:
Offset results – move 3.5 mils to the right
Angularity results – move 36 mils to the left
Thus, move to the left by 32.5 mils.

The procedure would be;
· The vertical shim corrections should always be done prior to the horizontal shifts.

· Once the vertical shims are adjusted, the bolts should be tightened and a quick test of the vertical plane reading should be made to confirm the accuracy.

· If the accuracy is satisfactory, the bolts can be loosened and the horizontal alignment should be done with jack bolts (if provided).

The limitations of this method are:
· Calculations are necessary, which may be difficult to do in the field.
· It is beneficial to be able to visualize the shaft orientation from the dial gage readings but this requires practice.
· Inexperienced technicians can find this confusing.
· Errors in calculations may occur if there is bracket sag and/or error in the dial gage readings.
· If the shaft of one or both the machines has substantial axial floats, the angular readings can be erroneous.

Laser alignment
Alignment with comparators such as dial gages characterized by;
· a fair degree of precision,
· demand skill,
· demand training and
· Require experience.
Consequently, these methods are;
· tend to provide errors and
· can take a considerable amount of time.

The method of alignment using LASERS (Figure 6.34);
· overcomes the disadvantages listed above and
· it is gradually becoming the preferred method of alignment for most machines.
· Data collection and calculations have become;
o fast and
o accurate
· Some laser systems need less than a quarter turn of the shaft to produce very good shim correction data.
· They have built-in alignment tolerances, and hence there is no need for an expert to judge on the quality of the residual misalignment.
· Laser beams can travel over long distances, and alignment can be done very accurately with relative ease (comfort).
· Laser beams do not bend over great distances and for this reason the sag effect is entirely eliminated.

Figure 6.34 Laser alignment

· The laser alignment system (Figure 6.35) comprises;
Ø an analyzer and
Ø two laser heads.
· The laser heads are attached to the two shafts
· The laser heads must face each other, and each head has a laser emitter and receiver.
· When the shafts are turned, the receivers trace the movement of the laser beams.
· These values are communicated to the analyzer.
· Machinery data and the required distances are initially entered into the analyzer.
· The data from;
o the laser heads and
o the given machinery data
are used to accurately determine the shim corrections for the machine.
· Once the laser head and the reflector are installed, the shafts must be rotated.

Figure 6.35 Laser alignment system comprising of laser head,
reflector and analyzer (Prueftechnik – Optalign Plus system)

One emitter and one receiver system;
· Some entry-level laser alignment systems only have one laser emitter head and a reflecting prism on the other.
· These systems are ideal for general purpose machines.
· They eliminate the dial gages and provide an alignment calculator.
· The methodology with these systems is same as the previous one.
· At every quarter revolution, the analyzer must be activated to acquire the reading.
· After this, the analyzer provides the alignment correction information.

Some advanced LASER systems
Some systems include additional features that make alignment of machines an easy task.
These features are:
· Complex trains comprising of as many as five machines can be handled.
· Communications that eliminate cables between the laser heads and the analyzer.
· Errors due to vibrations from other machines can also be eliminated through averaging.
· Uncoupled and non-rotating machines can also be aligned.
· Less than a quarter rotation may be sufficient to obtain misalignment data.
· It is possible to do live horizontal alignment. This means that there is no need to take a reading and transfer it to the analyzer for calculation. The instant communication of the heads and analyzer accomplishes this automatically.
· One or two soft foot conditions can be identified.
· Once a machine is aligned, its history and data can be stored.
· They provide built-in misalignment tolerances.

Alignment tolerances
In practice, it is almost impossible to obtain;
· a zero offset
· and zero angularity,
and thus machines have to be left with a certain residual misalignment.
This residual misalignment has little or no detrimental effect on the operation of machines.

· The above values are assumed to be pure offset or pure angle.
· In practice, a combination of the two is more common and tolerances should account for this combination.
For example, a machine is running at 3000 rpm and the residual misalignment data is:
· offset: 2.6 mils
· angularity: 0.25 mil/in.
In pure terms, these values would be acceptable.
Nonetheless, let us see if the combination of the two is acceptable. To achieve this, a XY graph is made as shown in Figure 6.36.
If an offset of 2.6 with an angularity of 0.25 mils/in. is plotted, it could be beyond the acceptable range.

Figure 6.36 Alignment tolerances

(Laser shaft alignment system)

1. Lock-out the machine.
2. Mount the chain brackets to the shafts.
3. Mount the emitter [waterproof, dust proof] on one bracket.
4. Mount the receiver [waterproof, dust proof] on the other bracket.
5. Turn on the emitter.
6. You have only one laser to adjust.
7. Only one cable is needed to connect the laser head to the hand-held computer.
8. Three short steps and you have your alignment data;
§ Dimension
§ Measure
§ Results
9. DIM
§ Press the DIM key your screen displays to you some data to put in.
§ Then determine the dimension of your machine and put them into the computer.
10. Measure (M)
§ Press measure key then you are ready to begin.
§ Turn the shafts for 1/4 (quarter) turn or less and forget about the clock position
11. Results
§ Press the result key, the screen displays as found to scale the alignment conditions AND the corrections needed.
12. Do physically the corrections required for the machine and repeat your job UNTIL the computer tells you that you have a good alignment.
(This is appeared with the sign on the screen).
13. Some benefits of this laser system are;
§ Determine the soft foot condition and analyze it and give the suggestions.
§ It can provide alignment for non-rotating shafts.
§ It can automatically the thermal expansion and gives the corrections.
§ It is capable of aligning the vertical machines.
§ The software can be updated from the website.

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