Wednesday, December 3, 2008

Pumps Characteristic CURVES

*Centrifugal Pump Characteristic Curves
For a given centrifugal pump operating at a constant speed, the flow rate through the pump is dependent upon the differential pressure or head developed by the pump.

The lower the pump head, the higher the flow rate. A vendor manual for a specific pump usually contains a curve of pump flow rate versus pump head called a pump characteristic curve. After a pump is installed in a system, it is usually tested to ensure that the flow rate and head of the pump are within the required specifications. A typical centrifugal pump characteristic curve is shown in Figure 11.

There are several terms associated with the pump characteristic curve that must be defined.

Shutoff head is the maximum head that can be developed by a centrifugal pump operating at a
set speed.

Pump runout is the maximum flow that can be developed by a centrifugal pump
without damaging the pump. Centrifugal pumps must be designed and operated to be protected from the conditions of pump runout or operating at shutoff head.

*Positive Displacement Pump Characteristic Curves

Positive displacement pumps deliver a definite volume of liquid for each cycle of pump operation. Therefore, the only factor that effects flow rate in an ideal positive displacement pump is the speed at which it operates. The
flow resistance of the system in which the pump is operating will not effect the flow rate through the pump.

Figure 21 shows the characteristic curve for a positive
displacement pump.

The dashed line in Figure 21 shows actual positive
displacement pump performance. This line reflects the
fact that as the discharge pressure of the pump increases,
some amount of liquid will leak from the discharge of the
pump back to the pump suction, reducing the effective
flow rate of the pump. The rate at which liquid leaks
from the pump discharge to its suction is called slippage.

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Positive displacement pumps

A positive displacement pump is one in which a definite volume of liquid is delivered for each cycle of pump operation. This volume is constant regardless of the resistance to flow offered by the system the pump is in, provided the capacity of the power unit driving the pump or pump component strength limits are not exceeded. The positive displacement pump delivers liquid in separate volumes with no delivery in between, although a pump having several chambers may have an overlapping delivery among individual chambers, which minimizes this effect. The positive displacement pump differs from centrifugal pumps, which deliver a continuous flow for any given pump speed and discharge resistance.

Positive displacement pumps can be grouped into three basic categories based on their design and operation. The three groups are reciprocating pumps, rotary pumps, and diaphragm pumps.

Principle of Operation
All positive displacement pumps operate on the same basic principle. This principle can be most easily demonstrated by considering a reciprocating positive displacement pump consisting of a single reciprocating piston in a cylinder with a single suction port and a single discharge port as shown in Figure 12. Check valves in the suction and discharge ports allow flow in only one direction.

Figure 12 Reciprocating Positive Displacement Pump Operation

During the suction stroke, the piston moves to the left, causing the check valve in the suction line between the reservoir and the pump cylinder to open and admit water from the reservoir.
During the discharge stroke, the piston moves to the right, seating the check valve in the suction line and opening the check valve in the discharge line. The volume of liquid moved by the pump in one cycle (one suction stroke and one discharge stroke) is equal to the change in the liquid volume of the cylinder as the piston moves from its farthest left position to its farthest right position.

Reciprocating Pumps
Reciprocating positive displacement pumps are generally categorized in four ways: direct-acting or indirect-acting; simplex or duplex; single-acting or double-acting; and power pump

Direct-Acting and Indirect-Acting Pumps
Some reciprocating pumps are powered by prime movers that also have reciprocating
motion, such as a reciprocating pump powered by a reciprocating steam piston. The piston rod of the steam piston may be directly connected to the liquid piston of the pump or it may be indirectly connected with a beam or linkage. Direct-acting pumps have a plunger on the liquid (pump) end that is directly driven by the pump rod (also the piston rod or extension thereof) and carries the piston of the power end. Indirect-acting pumps are driven by means of a beam or linkage connected to and actuated by the power piston rod of a separate reciprocating engine.

Simplex and Duplex Pumps
A simplex pump, sometimes referred to as a single pump, is a pump having a single liquid (pump) cylinder. A duplex pump is the equivalent of two simplex pumps placed side by side on the same foundation.

The driving of the pistons of a duplex pump is arranged in such a manner that when one piston is on its upstroke the other piston is on its downstroke, and vice versa. This arrangement doubles the capacity of the duplex pump compared to a simplex pump of comparable design.

Single-Acting and Double-Acting Pumps
A single-acting pump is one that takes a suction, filling the pump cylinder on the stroke in only one direction, called the suction stroke, and then forces the liquid out of the cylinder on the return stroke, called the discharge stroke. A double-acting pump is one that, as it fills one end of the liquid cylinder, is discharging liquid from the other end of the cylinder.

On the return stroke, the end of the cylinder just emptied is filled, and the end just filled is emptied. One possible arrangement for single-acting and double-acting pumps is shown in Figure 13.

Power Pumps
Power pumps convert rotary motion to low speed reciprocating motion by reduction
gearing, a crankshaft, connecting rods and crossheads. Plungers or pistons are driven by the crosshead drives. Rod and piston construction, similar to duplex double-acting steam pumps, is used by the liquid ends of the low pressure, higher capacity units. The higher pressure units are normally single-acting plungers, and usually employ three (triplex) plungers. Three or more plungers substantially reduce flow pulsations relative to simplex and even duplex pumps.

Figure 13 Single-Acting and Double-Acting Pumps

Power pumps typically have high efficiency and are capable of developing very high pressures.
They can be driven by either electric motors or turbines. They are relatively expensive pumps and can rarely be justified on the basis of efficiency over centrifugal pumps. However, they are frequently justified over steam reciprocating pumps where continuous duty service is needed due to the high steam requirements of direct-acting steam pumps.

In general, the effective flow rate of reciprocating pumps decreases as the viscosity of the fluid being pumped increases because the speed of the pump must be reduced. In contrast to centrifugal pumps, the differential pressure generated by reciprocating pumps is independent of fluid density. It is dependent entirely on the amount of force exerted on the piston. For more information on viscosity, density, and positive displacement pump theory, refer to the handbook on Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer, and Fluid Flow.

Rotary Pumps
Rotary pumps operate on the principle that a rotating vane, screw, or gear traps the liquid in the suction side of the pump casing and forces it to the discharge side of the casing. These pumps are essentially self-priming due to their capability of removing air from suction lines and producing a high suction lift. In pumps designed for systems requiring high suction lift and self priming features, it is essential that all clearances between rotating parts, and between rotating and stationary parts, be kept to a minimum in order to reduce slippage. Slippage is leakage of fluid from the discharge of the pump back to its suction.

Due to the close clearances in rotary pumps, it is necessary to operate these pumps at relatively low speed in order to secure reliable operation and maintain pump capacity over an extended period of time. Otherwise, the erosive action due to the high velocities of the liquid passing through the narrow clearance spaces would soon cause excessive wear and increased clearances, resulting in slippage.

There are many types of positive displacement rotary pumps, and they are normally grouped into three basic categories that include gear pumps, screw pumps, and moving vane pumps.

Simple Gear Pump
There are several variations of gear pumps. The simple gear pump shown in Figure 14 consists of two spur gears meshing together and revolving in opposite directions within a casing. Only a few thousandths of an inch clearance exists between the case and the gear faces and teeth extremities. Any liquid that fills the space bounded by two successive gear teeth and the case must follow along with the teeth as they revolve. When the gear teeth mesh with the teeth of the other gear, the space between the teeth is reduced, and the entrapped liquid is forced out the pump discharge pipe.

As the gears revolve and the teeth disengage, the space again opens on the suction side of the pump, trapping new quantities of liquid and carrying it around the pump case to the discharge. As liquid is carried away from the suction side, a lower pressure is created, which draws liquid in through the suction line.

Fig 24 Simple Gear Pump

With the large number of teeth usually employed on the gears, the discharge is relatively smooth and continuous, with small quantities of liquid being delivered to the discharge line in rapid succession. If designed with fewer teeth, the space between the teeth is greater and the capacity increases for a given speed; however, the tendency toward a pulsating discharge increases. In all simple gear pumps, power is applied to the shaft of one of the gears, which transmits power to the driven gear through their meshing teeth.

There are no valves in the gear pump to cause friction losses as in the reciprocating pump.

The high impeller velocities, with resultant friction losses, are not required as in the
centrifugal pump. Therefore, the gear pump is well suited for handling viscous fluids such as fuel and lubricating oils.

Other Gear Pumps
There are two types of gears used in gear pumps in addition to the simple spur gear. One type is the helical gear. A helix is the curve produced when a straight line moves up or down the surface of a cylinder. The other type is the herringbone gear. A herringbone gear is composed of two helixes spiraling in different directions from the center of the gear. Spur, helical, and herringbone gears are shown in Figure 15.

The helical gear pump has advantages over the simple spur gear. In a spur gear, the entire length of the gear tooth engages at the same time. In a helical gear, the point of engagement moves along the length of the gear tooth as the gear rotates. This makes the helical gear operate with a steadier discharge pressure and fewer pulsations than a spur gear pump.

The herringbone gear pump is also a modification of the simple gear pump. Its principal difference in operation from the simple spur gear pump is that the pointed center section of the space between two teeth begins discharging before the divergent outer ends of the preceding space complete discharging. This
overlapping tends to provide a steadier discharge pressure. The power transmission from the driving to the driven gear is also smoother and

Lobe Type Pump
The lobe type pump shown in Figure 16 is another variation of the simple gear pump. It is considered as a simple gear pump having only two or three teeth per rotor; otherwise, its operation or the
explanation of the function of its parts is no different. Some designs of lobe pumps are fitted with replaceable gibs, that is, thin plates carried in grooves at the extremity of each lobe where they
make contact with the casing. The gib promotes tightness and absorbs radial wear.

Screw-Type Positive Displacement Rotary Pump
There are many variations in the design of the screw type positive displacement, rotary pump. The primary differences consist of the number of intermeshing screws involved, the pitch of the screws, and the general direction of fluid flow. Two common designs are the two-screw, low-pitch, double-flow pump and the three-screw, high-pitch, double-flow pump.

*Two-Screw, Low-Pitch, Screw Pump
The two-screw, low-pitch, screw pump consists of two screws that mesh with close
clearances, mounted on two parallel shafts. One screw has a right-handed thread, and
the other screw has a left-handed thread. One shaft is the driving shaft and drives the
other shaft through a set of herringbone timing gears. The gears serve to maintain
clearances between the screws as they turn and to promote quiet operation. The
screws rotate in closely fitting duplex cylinders that have overlapping bores. All
clearances are small, but there is no actual contact between the two screws or between
the screws and the cylinder walls.

The complete assembly and the usual flow Figure 18 Three-Screw, High-Pitch, Screw Pump path are shown in Figure 17. Liquid is trapped at the outer end of each pair of screws. As the first space between the screw threads rotates away from the opposite screw, a one-turn, spiral-shaped quantity of liquid is enclosed when the end of the screw again meshes with the opposite screw. As the
screw continues to rotate, the entrapped spiral turns of liquid slide along the cylinder toward the center discharge space while the next slug is being entrapped.
Each screw functions similarly, and each pair of screws discharges an equal quantity of liquid in opposed streams toward the center, thus eliminating hydraulic thrust. The removal of liquid from the suction end by the screws produces a
reduction in pressure, which draws liquid through the suction line.

*Three-Screw, High-Pitch, Screw Pump
The three-screw, high-pitch, screw pump, shown in Figure 18, has many of the same elements as the two-screw, low-pitch, screw pump, and their operations are similar.
Three screws, oppositely threaded on each end, are employed. They rotate in a triple cylinder, the two outer bores of which overlap the center bore. The pitch of the screws is much higher than in the low pitch screw pump; therefore, the center screw, or
power rotor, is used to drive the two outer idler rotors directly without external timing gears.

Pedestal bearings at the base support the weight of the rotors and maintain their axial position. The liquid being pumped enters the suction opening, flows through passages around the rotor housing, and through the screws from each end, in opposed
streams, toward the center discharge. This eliminates unbalanced hydraulic thrust.

The screw pump is used for pumping viscous fluids, usually lubricating, hydraulic, or fuel oil.

Rotary Moving Vane Pump
The rotary moving vane pump shown in Figure 19 is another type of positive displacement pump used. The pump consists of a cylindrically bored housing with a suction inlet on one side and a discharge outlet on the other. A cylindrically shaped rotor with a diameter smaller than the cylinder is driven about an axis placed above the centerline of the cylinder.

The clearance between rotor and cylinder is small at the top but increases at the bottom.

The rotor carries vanes that move in and out as it rotates to maintain sealed spaces between the rotor and the cylinder wall. The vanes trap liquid or gas on the suction side and carry it to the discharge side, where contraction of the space expels it through the discharge line.The vanes may swing on pivots, or they may slide in slots in the rotor.

Diaphragm Pumps
Diaphragm pumps are also classified as positive displacement pumps because the diaphragm acts as a limited displacement piston. The pump will function when a diaphragm is forced into reciprocating motion by mechanical linkage, compressed air, or fluid from a pulsating, external source. The pump construction eliminates any contact between the liquid being pumped and the source of energy. This eliminates the possibility of leakage, which is important when handling toxic or very expensive liquids. Disadvantages include limited head and capacity range, and the necessity of check valves in the suction and discharge nozzles. An example of a diaphragm
pump is shown in Figure 20.

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Classification of Centrifugal Pumps

Centrifugal Pump Classification by Flow
Centrifugal pumps can be classified based on the manner in which fluid flows through the pump. The manner in which fluid flows through the pump is determined by the design of the pump casing and the impeller. The three types of flow through a centrifugal pump are radial flow, axial flow, and mixed flow.

Radial Flow Pumps

In a radial flow pump, the liquid enters at the center of the impeller and is directed out along the impeller blades in a direction at right angles to the pump shaft. The impeller of a typical radial flow pump and the flow through a radial flow pump are shown in Figure 6.

Fig 6 Radial Flow Centrifugal Pump

Axial Flow Pumps

In an axial flow pump, the impeller pushes the liquid in a direction parallel to the pump shaft. Axial flow pumps are sometimes called propeller pumps because they operate essentially the same as the propeller of a boat. The impeller of a typical axial flow pump and the flow through a radial flow pump are shown in Figure 7.

Fig 7 Axial Flow Centrifugal Pump

Mixed Flow Pumps

Mixed flow pumps borrow characteristics from both radial flow and axial flow pumps.
As liquid flows through the impeller of a mixed flow pump, the impeller blades push the liquid out away from the pump shaft and to the pump suction at an angle greater than 90o. The impeller of a typical mixed flow pump and the flow through a mixed flow pump are shown in Figure 8.

Fig 8 Mixed Flow Centrifugal Pump

Multi-Stage Centrifugal Pumps

A centrifugal pump with a single impeller that can develop a differential pressure of more than 150 psid between the suction and the discharge is difficult and costly to design and construct. A more economical approach to developing high pressures with a single centrifugal pump is to include multiple impellers on a common shaft within the same pump casing. Internal channels in the pump casing route the discharge of one impeller to the suction of another impeller.

Figure 9 shows a diagram of the arrangement of the impellers of a four-stage pump. The water enters the pump from the top left and passes through each of the four impellers in series, going from left to right. The water goes from the volute surrounding the discharge of one impeller to the suction of the next impeller.

A pump stage is defined as that portion of a centrifugal pump consisting of one impeller and its associated components. Most centrifugal pumps are single-stage pumps, containing only one impeller. A pump containing seven impellers within a single casing would be referred to as a seven-stage pump or, or generally, as a multi-stage pump.

Fig 9 Multi Stage Centrifugal Pump
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Diesel engine speed is controlled solely by the amount of fuel injected into the engine by the injectors. Because a diesel engine is not self-speed-limiting, it requires not only a means of changing engine speed (throttle control) but also a means of maintaining the desired speed. The governor provides the engine with the feedback mechanism to change speed as needed and to maintain a speed once reached.

A governor is essentially a speed-sensitive device, designed to maintain a constant engine speed regardless of load variation. Since all governors used on diesel engines control engine speed through the regulation of the quantity of fuel delivered to the cylinders, these governors may be classified as speed-regulating governors. As with the engines themselves there are many types and variations of governors. In this module, only the common mechanical-hydraulic type governor will be reviewed.
The major function of the governor is determined by the application of the engine. In an engine that is required to come up and run at only a single speed regardless of load, the governor is called a constant-speed type governor. If the engine is manually controlled, or controlled by an outside device with engine speed being controlled over a range, the governor is called a variable speed type governor. If the engine governor is designed to keep the engine speed above a minimum and below a maximum, then the governor is a speed-limiting type. The last category of governor is the load limiting type. This type of governor limits fuel to ensure that the engine is not loaded above a specified limit. Note that many governors act to perform several of these functions simultaneously.

Operation of a Governor
The following is an explanation of the operation of a constant speed, hydraulically compensated governor using the Woodward brand governor as an example. The principles involved are common in any mechanical and hydraulic governor.

The Woodward speed governor operates the diesel engine fuel racks to ensure a constant engine speed is maintained at any load. The governor is a mechanical-hydraulic type governor and receives its supply of oil from the engine lubricating system. This means that a loss of lube oil pressure will cut off the supply of oil to the governor and cause the governor to shut down the engine. This provides the engine with a built-in shutdown device to protect the engine in the event of loss of lubricating oil pressure.

Simplified Operation of the Governor
The governor controls the fuel rack position through a combined action of the hydraulic piston and a set of mechanical flyweights, which are driven by the engine blower shaft.

Figure 28 provides an illustration of a functional diagram of a mechanical-hydraulic
governor. The position of the flyweights is determined by the speed of the engine. As
the engine speeds up or down, the weights move in or out. The movement of the
flyweights, due to a change in engine speed, moves a small piston (pilot valve) in the
governor's hydraulic system. This motion adjusts flow of hydraulic fluid to a large
hydraulic piston (servo-motor piston). The large hydraulic piston is linked to the fuel
rack and its motion resets the fuel rack for increased/decreased fuel.

Fig 28 simplified Mechanical-Hydraulic Governor
Detailed Operation of the Governor
With the engine operating, oil from the engine lubrication system is supplied to the
governor pump gears, as illustrated in Figure 29. The pump gears raise the oil pressure to a value determined by the spring relief valve. The oil pressure is maintained in the annular space between the undercut portion of the pilot valve plunger and the bore in the pilot valve bushing. For any given speed setting, the spring speeder exerts a force that is opposed by the centrifugal force of the revolving flyweights. When the two forces are equal, the control land on the pilot valve plunger covers the lower ports in the pilot valve bushing.

Fig 29 Cutway of Woodward Governor

Under these conditions, equal oil pressures are maintained on both sides of the buffer piston and tension on the two buffer springs is equal. Also, the oil pressure is equal on both sides of the receiving compensating land of the pilot valve plunger due to oil passing through the compensating needle valve. Thus, the hydraulic system is in balance, and the engine speed remains constant.

When the engine load increases, the engine starts to slow down in speed. The reduction in engine speed will be sensed by the governor flyweights. The flyweights are forced inward (by the spring), thus lowering the pilot valve plunger (again, due to the downward spring force). Oil under pressure will be admitted under the servo-motor piston (topside of the buffer piston) causing it to rise. This upward motion of the servo-motor piston will be transmitted through the terminal lever to the fuel racks, thus increasing the amount o f fuel injected into the engine. The oil that forces the servo-motor piston upward also forces the buffer piston upward because the oil pressure on each side of the piston is unequal.

This upward motion of the piston compresses the upper buffer spring and relieves the pressure on the lower buffer spring.

The oil cavities above and below the buffer piston are common to the receiving
compensating land on the pilot valve plunger. Because the higher pressure is below the compensating land, the pilot valve plunger is forced upward, recentering the flyweights and causing the control land of the pilot valve to close off the regulating port. Thus, the upward movement of the servo-motor piston stops when it has moved far enough to make the necessary fuel correction.

Oil passing through the compensating needle valve slowly equalizes the pressures above and below the buffer piston, thus allowing the buffer piston to return to the center position, which in turn equalizes the pressure above and below the receiving
compensating land. The pilot valve plunger then moves to its central position and the
engine speed returns to its original setting because there is no longer any excessive
outward force on the flyweights.

The action of the flyweights and the hydraulic feedback mechanism produces stable
engine operation by permitting the governor to move instantaneously in response to the load change and to make the necessary fuel adjustment to maintain the initial engine speed.
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Fuel Injectors

Fuel Injectors
Each cylinder has a fuel injector designed to meter and inject fuel into the cylinder at the proper instant. To accomplish this function, the injectors are actuated by the engine's camshaft. The camshaft provides the timing and pumping action used by the injector to inject the fuel. The injectors meter the amount of fuel injected into the cylinder on each stroke. The amount of fuel to be injected by each injector is set by a mechanical linkage called the fuel rack. The fuel rack position is controlled by the engine's governor. The governor determines the amount of fuel required to maintain the desired engine speed and adjusts the amount to be injected by adjusting
the position of the fuel rack.

Each injector operates in the following manner. As illustrated in Figure 26, fuel under pressure enters the injector through the injector's filter cap and filter element. From the filter element the fuel travels down into the supply chamber (that area between the plunger bushing and the spill deflector). The plunger operates up and down in the bushing, the bore of which is open to the fuel supply in the supply chamber by two funnel-shaped ports in the plunger bushing.

Figure 26 Fuel Injector Cutway
The motion of the injector rocker arm (not shown) is transmitted to the plunger by the injector follower which bears against the follower spring. As the plunger moves downward under pressure of the injector rocker arm, a portion of the fuel trapped under the plunger is displaced into the supply chamber through the lower port until the port is closed off by the lower end of the plunger. The fuel trapped below the plunger is then forced up through the central bore of the plunger and back out the upper port until the upper port is closed off by the downward motion of the plunger.

With the upper and lower ports both closed off, the remaining fuel under the plunger is subjected to an increase in pressure by the downward motion of the plunger.
When sufficient pressure has built up, the injector valve is lifted off its seat and the fuel is forced through small orifices in the spray tip and atomized into the combustion chamber. A check valve, mounted in the spray tip, prevents air in the combustion chamber from flowing back into the fuel injector. The plunger is then returned back to its original position by the injector follower spring.

On the return upward movement of the plunger, the high pressure cylinder within the bushing is again filled with fresh fuel oil through the ports. The constant circulation of fresh, cool fuel through the injector renews the fuel supply in the chamber and helps cool the injector. The fuel flow also effectively removes all traces of air that might otherwise accumulate in the system.

The fuel injector outlet opening, through which the excess fuel returns to the fuel return manifold and then back to the fuel tank, is adjacent to the inlet opening and contains a filter element exactly the same as the one on the fuel inlet side. In addition to the reciprocating motion of the plunger, the plunger can be rotated during operation around its axis by the gear which meshes with the fuel rack. For metering the fuel, an upper helix and a lower helix are machined in the lower part of the plunger. The relation of the helices to the two ports in the injector bushing changes with the rotation of the plunger.

Changing the position of the helices, by rotating the plunger, retards or advances the closing of the ports and the beginning and ending of the injection period. At the same time, it increases or decreases the amount of fuel injected into the cylinder. Figure 27 illustrates the various plunger positions from NO LOAD to FULL LOAD. With the control rack pulled all the way (no injection), the upper port is not closed by the helix until after the lower port is uncovered.

Consequently, with the rack in this position, all of the fuel is forced back into the supply chamber and no injection of fuel takes place. With the control rack pushed all the way in (full injection), the upper port is closed shortly after the lower port has been covered, thus producing a maximum effective stroke and maximum fuel injection. From this no-injection position to the full-injection position (full rack movement), the contour of the upper helix advances the closing of the ports and the beginning of injection.

Fig 27 Fuel Injector Plunger
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Two Stroke Diesel Engine

The Two-Stroke Cycle
Like the four-stroke engine, the two-stroke engine must go through the same four events: intake, compression, power, and exhaust. But a two-stroke engine requires only two strokes of the piston to complete one full cycle. Therefore, it requires only one rotation of the crankshaft to complete a cycle. This means several events must occur during each stroke for all four events to be completed in two strokes, as opposed to the four-stroke engine where each stroke basically contains one event.

In a two-stroke engine the camshaft is geared so that it rotates at the same speed as the crankshaft (1:1). The following section will describe a two-stroke, supercharged, diesel engine having intake ports and exhaust valves with a 3.5-inch bore and 4-inch stroke with a 16:1 compression ratio, as it passes through one complete cycle. We will start on the exhaust stroke. All the timing marks given are generic and will vary from engine to engine.

Exhaust and Intake
At 82° ATDC, with the piston near the end of its power stroke, the exhaust cam begins to lift the exhaust valves follower. The valve lash is taken up, and 9° later (91° ATDC), the rocker arm forces the exhaust valve off its seat. The exhaust gasses start to escape into the exhaust manifold, as shown in Figure 21. Cylinder pressure starts to decrease.

After the piston travels three-quarters of its (down) stroke, or 132° ATDC of crankshaft rotation, the piston starts to uncover the inlet ports. As the exhaust valve is still open, the uncovering of the inlet ports lets the compressed fresh air enter the cylinder and helps cool the cylinder and scavenge the cylinder of the remaining exhaust gasses (Figure 22).Commonly, intake and exhaust occur over approximately 96° of crankshaft rotation.

At 43° ABDC, the camshaft starts to close the exhaust valve. At 53° ABDC (117° BTDC), the camshaft has rotated sufficiently to allow the spring pressure to close the
exhaust valve. Also, as the piston travels past 48°ABDC (5° after the exhaust valve starts closing), the intake ports are closed off by the piston.

After the exhaust valve is on its seat (53° ATDC), the temperature and pressure begin to rise in nearly the same fashion as in the four-stroke engine. Figure 23 illustrates the compression in a 2-stroke engine. At 23° BTDC the injector cam begins to lift the
injector follower and pushrod. Fuel injection continues until 6° BTDC (17 total degrees of injection), as illustrated in Figure 24.

The power stroke starts after the piston passes TDC. Figure 25 illustrates the power stroke which continues until the piston reaches 91° ATDC, at which point the
exhaust valves start to open and a new cycle begins.
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