Monday, December 29, 2008


Purpose of Demineralizers
Dissolved impurities in power plant fluid systems generate corrosion problems and decrease efficiency due to fouled heat transfer surfaces. Demineralization of the water is one of the most practical and common methods available to remove these dissolved impurities.

In the plant, demineralizers (also called ion-exchangers) are used to hold ion exchange resins and transport water through them. Ion exchangers are generally classified into two groups: singlebed ion exchangers and mixed-bed ion exchangers.

A demineralizer is basically a cylindrical tank with connections at the top for water inlet and resin addition, and connections at the bottom for the water outlet. The resin can usually be changed through a connection at the bottom of the tank. The resin beads are kept in the demineralizer by upper and lower retention elements, which are strainers with a mesh size smaller then the resin beads. The water to be purified enters the top at a set flow rate and flows down through the resin beads, where the flow path causes a physical filter effect as well as a chemical ion exchange.

Single-Bed Demineralizers
A single-bed demineralizer contains either cation or anion resin beads. In most cases, there are two, single-bed ion exchangers in series; the first is a cation bed and the second is an anion bed. Impurities in plant water are replaced with hydrogen ions in the cation bed and hydroxyl ions in the anion bed. The hydrogen ions and the hydroxyl ions then combine to form pure water.
The Chemistry Handbook, Module 4, Principles of Water Treatment, addresses the chemistry of demineralizers in more detail.

Figure 13 illustrates a single-bed demineralizer. When in use, water flows in through the inlet to a distributor at the top of the tank. The water flows down through the resin bed and exits out through the outlet. A support screen at the bottom prevents the resin from being forced out of the demineralizer tank.

Figure 13 Single-Bed Demineralizer

Single-Bed Regeneration
The regeneration of a single-bed ion exchanger is a three-step process. The first step is a backwash, in which water is pumped into the bottom of the ion exchanger and up through the resin. This fluffs the resin and washes out any entrained particles. The backwash water goes out through the normal inlet distributor piping at the top of the tank, but the valves are set to direct the stream to a drain so that the backwashed particles can be pumped to a container for waste disposal.

The second step is the actual regeneration step, which uses an acid solution for cation units and caustic solution for anion units. The concentrated acid or caustic is diluted to approximately 10% with water by opening the dilution water valve, and is then introduced through a distribution system immediately above the resin bed. The regenerating solution flows through the resin and out the bottom of the tank to the waste drain.

The final step is a rinsing process, which removes any excess regenerating solution. Water is pumped into the top of the tank, flows down through the resin bed and out at the bottom drain.

To return the ion exchanger to service, the drain valve is closed, the outlet valve is opened, and the ion exchanger is ready for service.

Single-bed demineralizers are usually regenerated "in place." The resins are not pumped out to another location for regeneration. The regeneration process is the same for cation beds and for anion beds; only the regenerating solution is different. It is important to realize that if the ion exchanger has been exposed to radioactive materials, the backwash, regeneration, and rinse solutions may be highly radioactive and must be treated as a radioactive waste.

Mixed-Bed Demineralizer
A mixed-bed demineralizer is a demineralizer in which the cation and anion resin beads are mixed together. In effect, it is equivalent to a number of two-step demineralizers in series. In a mixed-bed demineralizer, more impurities are replaced by hydrogen and hydroxyl ions, and the water that is produced is extremely pure. The conductivity of this water can often be less than 0.06 micromhos per centimeter.

Mixed-Bed Regeneration
The mixed-bed demineralizer shown in Figure 14 is designed to be regenerated in place, but the process is more complicated than the regeneration of a single-bed ion exchanger. The steps in the regeneration are shown in Figure 14.

Figure 14a shows the mixed-bed ion exchanger in the operating, or on-line mode. Water enters through a distribution header at the top and exits through the line at the bottom of the vessel. Regeneration causes the effluent water to increase in electrical conductivity.

The first regeneration step is backwash, as shown in Figure 14b. As in a single-bed unit,backwash water enters the vessel at the bottom and exits through the top to a drain. In addition to washing out entrained particles, the backwash water in a mixed-bed unit must also separate the resins into cation and anion beds. The anion resin has a lower specific gravity than the cation resin; therefore, as the water flows through the bed, the lighter anion resin beads float upward to the top. Thus, the mixed-bed becomes a split bed. The separation line between the anion bed at the top and the cation bed at the bottom is called the resin interface. Some resins can be separated only when they are in the depleted state; other resins separate in either the depleted form or the regenerated form.

The actual regeneration step is shown in Figure 14c. Dilution water is mixed with caustic solution and introduced at the top of the vessel, just above the anion bed. At the same time, dilution water is mixed with acid and introduced at the bottom of the vessel, below the cation bed. The flow rate of the caustic solution down to the resin interface is the same as the flow rate of the acid solution up to the resin interface. Both solutions are removed at the interface and dumped to a drain.

Figure 14 Regeneration of a Mixed-Bed Demineralizer

During the regeneration step, it is important to maintain the cation and anion resins at their proper volume. If this is not done, the resin interface will not occur at the proper place in the vessel, and some resin will be exposed to the wrong regenerating solution. It is also important to realize that if the ion exchanger has been involved with radioactive materials, both the backwash and the regenerating solutions may be highly radioactive and must be treated as liquid radioactive waste.

The next step is the slow rinse step, shown in Figure 14d, in which the flow of dilution water is continued, but the caustic and acid supplies are cut off. During this two-direction rinse, the last of the regenerating solutions are flushed out of the two beds and into the interface drain.

Rinsing from two directions at equal flow rates keeps the caustic solution from flowing down into the cation resin and depleting it.

In the vent and partial drain step, illustrated in Figure 14e, the drain valve is opened, and some of the water is drained out of the vessel so that there will be space for the air that is needed to re-mix the resins. In the air mix step, (Figure 14f) air is usually supplied by a blower, which forces air in through the line entering the bottom of the ion exchanger. The air mixes the resin beads and then leaves through the vent in the top of the vessel. When the resin is mixed, it is dropped into position by slowly draining the water out of the interface drain while the air mix continues.

In the final rinse step, shown in Figure 14g, the air is turned off and the vessel is refilled with water that is pumped in through the top. The resin is rinsed by running water through the vessel from top to bottom and out the drain, until a low conductivity reading indicates that the ion exchanger is ready to return to service.

External Regeneration
Some mixed-bed demineralizers are designed to be regenerated externally, with the resins being removed from the vessel, regenerated, and then replaced. With this type of demineralizer, the first step is to sluice the mixed bed with water (sometimes assisted by air pressure) to a cation tank in a regeneration facility. The resins are backwashed in this tank to remove suspended solids and to separate the resins. The anion resins are then sluiced to an anion tank. The two batches of separated resins are regenerated by the same techniques used for single-bed ion exchangers. They are then sluiced into a holding tank where air is used to remix them. The mixed, regenerated, resins are then sluiced back to the demineralizer.

External regeneration is typically used for groups of condensate demineralizers. Having one central regeneration facility reduces the complexity and cost of installing several demineralizers.

External regeneration also allows keeping a spare bed of resins in a holding tank. Then, when a demineralizer needs to be regenerated, it is out of service only for the time required to sluice out the depleted bed and sluice a fresh bed in from the holding tank. A central regeneration facility may also include an ultrasonic cleaner that can remove the tightly adherent coating of dirt or iron oxide that often forms on resin beads. This ultrasonic cleaning reduces the need for chemical regeneration.

Demineralizers Summary
Demineralization of water is one of the most practical and common methods used to remove dissolved contaminates. Dissolved impurities in power plant fluid systems can generate corrosion problems and decrease efficiency due to fouled heat transfer surfaces. Demineralizers (also called ion-exchangers) are used to hold ion exchange resins and transport water through them. Ion exchangers are generally classified
into two groups: single-bed ion exchangers and mixed-bed ion exchangers.

A demineralizer is basically a cylindrical tank with connections at the top for water inlet and resin addition, and connections at the bottom for the water outlet. The resin can usually be changed out through a connection at the bottom of the tank. The resin beads are kept in the demineralizer by upper and lower retention elements, which are strainers with a mesh size smaller then the resin beads.

The water to be purified enters the top at a set flow rate, flows down through the resin beads where the flow path causes a physical filter effect as well as a chemical ion exchange. The chemistry of the resin exchange is explained in detail in the Chemistry Fundamentals Handbook.

There are two types of demineralizers, single-bed and mixed-bed.
Single-bed demineralizers have resin of either cation or anion exchange sites. Mixed-bed demineralizers contain both anion and cation resin.

All demineralizers will eventually be exhausted from use. To regenerate the resin and increase the demineralizer's efficiency, the demineralizers are regenerated. The regeneration process is slightly different for a mixed-bed demineralizer compared to the single-bed demineralizer. Both methods were explained in this chapter.
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The primary function of a boiler is to produce steam at a given pressure and temperature. To accomplish this, the boiler serves as a furnace where air is mixed with fuel in a controlled combustion process to release large quantities of heat. The pressure-tight construction of a boiler provides a means to absorb the heat from the combustion and transfer this heat to raise water to a temperature such that the steam produced is of sufficient temperature and quality (moisture content) for steam loads.

Two distinct heat sources used for boilers are electric probes and burned fuel (oil, coal, etc.)This chapter will use fuel boilers to illustrate the typical design of boilers. Refer to Figure 9 during the following discussion.

The boiler has an enclosed space where the fuel combustion takes place, usually referred to as the furnace or combustion chamber. Air is supplied to combine with the fuel, resulting in combustion. The heat of combustion is absorbed by the water in the risers or circulating tubes. The density difference between hot and cold water is the driving force to circulate the water back to the steam drum. Eventually the water will absorb sufficient heat to produce steam.

Steam leaves the steam drum via a baffle, which causes any water droplets being carried by the steam to drop out and drain back to the steam drum. If superheated steam is required, the steam may then travel through a superheater. The hot combustion gasses from the furnace will heat the steam through the superheater's thin tube walls. The steam then goes to the steam supply system and the various steam loads.

Some boilers have economizers to improve cycle efficiency by preheating inlet feedwater to the boiler. The economizer uses heat from the boiler exhaust gasses to raise the temperature of the inlet feedwater.

Figure 9 Typical Fuel Boiler

Fuel Boiler Components
Figure 9 illustrates a typical fuel boiler. Some of the components are explained below.

Steam drum - The steam drum separates the steam from the heated water. The
water droplets fall to the bottom of the tank to be cycled again, and the steam leaves the drum and enters the steam system. Feedwater enters at the bottom of the drum to start the heating cycle.

Downcomers - Downcomers are the pipes in which the water from the steam drum travels in order to reach the bottom of the boiler where the water can enter the distribution headers.

Distribution headers - The distribution headers are large pipe headers that carry the water from the downcomers to the risers.

Risers - The piping or tubes that form the combustion chamber enclosure are called risers. Water and steam run through these to be heated. The term risers refers to the fact that the water flow direction is from the bottom to the top of the boiler. From the
risers, the water and steam enter the steam drum and the cycle starts again.

Combustion chamber - Located at the bottom of a boiler, the combustion chamber is where the air and fuel mix and burn. It is lined with the risers.

Boilers Summary
*Boilers are vessels that allow water in contained piping to be heated to steam by a heat source internal to the vessel. The water is heated to the boiling point. The resulting steam separates, and the water is heated again. Some boilers use the heat from combustion off-gasses to further heat the steam (superheat) and/or to preheat the feedwater.

*The following components were discussed:
The steam drum is where the steam is separated from the heated water.

Downcomers are the pipes in which the water from the steam drum travels to reach the bottom of the boiler.

Distribution headers are large pipe headers that carry the water from th downcomers to the risers.

Risers are the piping or tubes that form the combustion chamber enclosure. Water and steam run through the risers to be heated.

The combustion chamber is located at the bottom of the boiler and is where the air and fuel mix and burn.
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Ball bearings can operate at higher speed in comparison to roller bearings because they have lower friction. In particular, the balls have less viscous resistance when rolling through oil or grease. However, ball bearings have lower load capacity compared with roller bearings because of the high contact pressure of point contact. There are about 50 types of ball bearings listed in manufacturer catalogues. Each one has been designed for specific applications and has its unique characteristics. The following is a description of the most common types.

12.2.1 Ball Bearings Deep-Groove Ball Bearing
The deep-groove ball bearing (Fig. 12-2) is the most common type, since it can be used for relatively high radial loads. Deep-groove radial ball bearings are the most widely used bearings in industry, and their market share is about 80% of industrial rolling-element bearings. Owing to the deep groove in the raceways, they can support considerable thrust loads (in the axial direction of the shaft) in

addition to radial loads. A deep-groove bearing can support a thrust load of about
70% of its radial load. The radial and axial load capacity increases with the bearing size and number of balls.
For maximum load capacity, a filling-notch type of bearing can be used that has a larger number of balls than the standard bearing. In this design, there is a notch on one shoulder of the race. The circular notch makes it possible to insert more balls into the deep groove between the two races. The maximum number of balls can be inserted if the outer ring is split. However, in that case, external means must be provided to hold and tighten the two ring halves together. Self-Aligning Ball Bearings
It is very important to compensate for angular machining and assembly errors between the centerlines of the bearing and the shaft. The elastic deflection of the shaft is an additional cause of misalignment. In the case of a regular deep-groove ball bearing, the misalignment causes a bending moment in the bearing and additional severe contact stresses between the balls and races. However, in the self-aligning bearing (Fig. 12-3), the spherical shape of the outer race allows an additional angular degree of freedom (similar to that of a universal joint) that prevents the transfer of any bending moment to the bearing and prevents any additional contact stresses.

Self-aligning ball bearings have two rows of balls, and the outer ring has a common spherical raceway that allows for the self-aligning characteristic. The

inner ring is designed with two restraining ribs (also known as lips), one at each
side of the roller element, for accurately locating the rolling elements’ path on the
inner raceway. But the outside ring has no ribs, in order to allow for selfalignment.
A wide spherical outer race allows for a higher degree of selfalignment.

Self-aligning ball bearings are widely used in applications where misalignment
is expected due to the bending of the shaft, errors in the manufacture of the shaft, or mounting errors. The design engineer must keep in mind that there are always tolerances due to manufacturing errors. Self-aligning bearings can be applied for radial loads combined with moderate thrust loads. The feature that self-aligning bearings do not exert any bending moment on the shaft is particularly important in applications that require high precision (low radial run-out) at high speeds, because shaft bending causes imbalance and vibrations.

The concept of self-alignment is useful in all types of bearings, including sleeve
bearings. Double-Row Deep-Groove Ball Bearing
This bearing type (Fig. 12-4) is used for relatively high radial loads. It is more sensitive to misalignment errors than the single row and should be used only for
applications where minimal misalignment is expected. Otherwise, a self-alignment
bearing should be selected.

The design of double-row ball bearings is similar to that of single-row ball
bearings. Since double-row ball bearings are wider and have two rows, they can

carry higher radial loads. Unlike the deep-groove bearing, designs of split rings (for the maximum number of balls) are not used, and each ring is made from one piece. However, double-row bearings include groups with larger diameters and a larger number of balls to further improve the load capacity. Angular Contact Ball Bearing
This bearing type (Fig. 12-5) is used to support radial and thrust loads. Contact angles of up to 40 (from the radial direction) are available from some bearing manufacturers, but 15 and 25 are the more standard contact angles. The contact
angle determines the ratio of the thrust to radial load.

Angular contact bearings are widely used for adjustable arrangements, where they are mounted in pairs against each other and preloaded. In this way, clearances in the bearings are eliminated or even preload is introduced in the rolling contacts. This is often done to stiffen the bearings for a rigid support of the shaft. This is important for reducing the amplitude of shaft vibrations under oscillating forces. This type of design has significant advantages whenever precision is required (e.g., in machine tools), and it reduces vibrations due to imbalance. This is particularly important in high-speed applications. An adjustable arrangement is also possible in tapered bearings; however, angular contact ball bearings have lower friction than do tapered bearings. However, the friction of angular contact ball bearings is somewhat higher than that of radial ball bearings. Angular contact ball bearings are the preferred choice in many important applications, such as high-speed turbines, including jet engines.

Single-row angular contact ball bearings can carry considerable radial loads
combined with thrust loads in one direction. Prefabricated mountings of two or more single-row angular contact ball bearings are widely used for two-directional thrust loads. Two bearings in series can be used for heavy unidirectional thrust loads, where two single-row angular contact ball bearings share the thrust load.

Precise axial internal clearance and high-quality surface finish are required to
secure load sharing of the two bearings in series. The bearing arrangement of two or more angular contact bearings facing the same direction is referred to as tandem arrangement. The bearings are mounted adjacent to each other to increase the thrust load carrying capacity.

12.2.2 Roller Bearings
Roller bearings have a theoretical line contact between the unloaded cylindrical rollers and races. This is in comparison to ball bearings, which have only a theoretical point contact with the raceways. Under load, there is elastic deformation, and line contact results in a larger contact area than that of a point contact in ball bearings. Therefore, roller bearings can support higher radial loads. At the same time, the friction force and friction-energy losses are higher for a line contact; therefore, roller bearings are usually not used for high-speed applications.

Roller bearings can be classified into four categories: cylindrical roller
bearings, tapered roller bearings, needle roller bearings and spherical roller
bearings. Cylindrical Roller Bearings
The cylindrical roller bearing (Fig. 12-6) is used in applications where high radial load is present without any thrust load. Various types of cylindrical roller bearings are manufactured and applied in machinery. In certain applications where diameter space is limited, these bearings are mounted directly on the shaft, which serves as the inner race. For direct mounting, the shaft must be hardened to high Rockwell hardness, similar to that of the bearing race. For direct mounting, the radial load must be high in order to prevent slipping between the rollers and the shaft during the start-up. It is important to keep in mind that cylindrical roller bearings cannot support considerable thrust loads. Thus, for applications where both radial and thrust loading are present, it is preferable to use ball bearings. Tapered Roller Bearing
The tapered roller bearing is used in applications where a high thrust load is present that can be combined with a radial load. The bearing is shown in Fig. 12-7. The races of inner and outer rings have a conical shape, and the rolling elements between them have a conical shape as well. In order to have a rolling motion, the contact lines formed by each of the various tapered roller elements

and the two races must intersect at a common point on the bearing axis. This intersection point is referred to as an apex point. The apex point is closer to the bearing when the cone angle is steeper. A steeper cone angle can support a higher
thrust load relative to a radial load.

The inner ring is referred to as cone, while the outer ring is referred to as cup. The cone is designed with two retaining ribs (also known as lips) to confine

the tapered rollers as shown in Fig. 12-7. The ribs also align the rollers between the races. In addition, the larger rib has an important role in supporting the axial load. A cage holds the cone and rollers together as one unit, but the cup (outer ring) can be pulled apart.

A single-row tapered roller bearing can support a thrust load in only one
direction. Two tapered roller bearings are usually mounted in opposition, to allow for thrust support in both directions (in a similar way to opposing angular contact ball bearings). Moreover, double or four-row tapered roller bearings are applied in certain applications to support a high bidirectional thrust load as well as radial load.

The reaction force on the cup acts in the direction normal to the line of contact of the rolling elements with the cup race (normal to the cup surface). This force can be divided into axial and radial load components. The intersection of the resultant reaction force (which is normal to the cup angle) with the bearing centerline is referred to as the effective center. The location of the effective center is useful in bearing load calculations.

For example, when a radial load is applied on the bearing, this produces both radial and thrust reactions. The thrust force component, which acts in the direction of the shaft centerline, can separate the cone from the cup by sliding the shaft in the axial direction through the cone or by the cup’s sliding axially in its seat. To prevent such undesired axial motion, a single-row tapered bearing should be mounted with another tapered bearing in the opposite direction. This arrangement is also very important for adjusting the clearance.

One major advantage of the tapered roller bearing is that it can be applied in
adjustable arrangement where two tapered roller bearings are mounted in opposite directions (in a similar way to the adjustable arrangement of the angular contact ball bearing that was discussed earlier). This arrangement allows one to eliminate undesired clearance and to provide a preload (interference or negative clearance). Bearing preload increases the bearing stiffness, resulting in reduced vibrations as well as a lower level of run-out errors in precision machining.
However, the disadvantage of bearing preloading is additional contact stresses
and higher friction. Preload results in lowering the speed limit because the higher friction causes overheating at high speeds.

The adjustment of bearing clearance can be done during assembly and even during steady operation of the machine. The advantage of adjustment during operation is the precise elimination of the clearance after the thermal expansion of
the shaft. Multirow Tapered Roller Bearings
The multirow tapered roller bearing (Fig. 12-8) is manufactured with a predetermined
adjustment that enables assembly into a machine without any further adjustment. The multirow arrangement includes spacers and is referred to as a

spacer assembly. The spacer is matched with a specific bearing assembly during
manufacturing. It is important to note that components of these assemblies are not
interchangeable. Other types, without spacers, are manufactured with predetermined
internal adjustment, and their components are also not interchangeable. Needle Roller Bearing
These bearings (Fig. 12-9) are similar to cylindrical roller bearings, in the sense that they support high radial load. This type of bearing has a needle like appearance because of its higher length-to-diameter ratio.
The objective of a needle roller bearing is to save space. This is advantageous in applications where bearing space is limited. Furthermore, in certain applications needle roller bearings can also be mounted directly on the

shaft. For a direct mounting, the shaft must be properly hardened to a similar
hardness of a bearing ring.

Two types of needle roller bearings are available. The first type, referred to as full complement, does not include a cage; the second type has a cage to separate the needle rollers in order to prevent them from sliding against each other. The full-complement bearing has more rollers and can support higher radial load. The second type has a lower number of rollers because it has a cage to separate the needle rollers to prevent them from rubbing against each other. The speed of a full-complement bearing is limited because it has higher friction between the rollers. A full-complement needle bearing may comprise a maximum number of needle rollers placed between a hardened shaft and a housing bore. An outer ring may not be required in certain situations, resulting in further saving of space. Self-Aligning Spherical Roller Bearing
This bearing has barrel-shaped rollers (Fig. 12-10). It is designed for applications that involve misalignments due to shaft bending under heavy loads and due to manufacturing tolerances or assembly errors (in a similar way to the self-aligning
ball bearing). The advantage of the spherical roller bearing is its higher load capacity in comparison to that of a self-aligning ball bearing, but it has higher frictional losses.

Spherical roller bearings are available as single-row, double-row, and thrust
types. The single-row thrust spherical roller bearing is designed to support only thrust load, and it is not recommended where radial loads are present. Double-row

spherical roller bearings are commonly used when radial as well as thrust loads
are present.

The double-row spherical roller bearing has the highest load capacity of all rolling bearings. This is due to the relatively large radius of contact of the rolling element. It can resist impact and other dynamic forces. It is used in heavy-duty
applications such as ship shafts, rolling mills, and stone crushers.
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Saturday, December 6, 2008

Types of Control Valves (Part 2)

Shuttle and fast exhaust valves
A shuttle valve, also known as a double check valve, allows pressure in a line to be obtained from alternative sources. It is primarily a pneumatic device and is rarely found in hydraulic circuits.

Construction is very simple and consists of a ball inside a cylinder, as shown in Figure 4.25a. If pressure is applied to port X, the ball is blown to the fight blocking port Y and linking ports X and A.

Similarly, pressure to port Y alone connects ports Y and A and blocks port X. The symbol of a shuttle valve is given in Figure 4.25b.

A typical application is given in Figure 4.25c, where a spring return cylinder is operated from either of two manual stations.

Isolation between the two stations is provided by the shuttle valve. Note a simple T-connection cannot be used as each valve has its A port vented to the exhaust port.

A fast exhaust valve (Figure 4.26) is used to vent cylinders quickly. It is primarily used with spring return (single-acting) pneumatic cylinders. The device shown in Figure 4.26a consists of a movable disc which allows port A to be connected to

pressure port P or large exhaust port R. It acts like, and has the same symbol as, a shuttle valve. A typical application is shown in Figure 4.26b.

Fast exhaust valves are usually mounted local to, or directly onto, cylinders and speed up response by avoiding any delay from return pipes and control valves. They also permit simpler control valves to be used.

Sequence valves
The sequence valve is a close relative of the pressure relief valve and is used where a set of operations are to be controlled in a pressure related sequence. Figure 4.27 shows a typical example where a workpiece is pushed into position by cylinder 1 and clamped by cylinder 2.

Sequence valve V 2 is connected to the extend line of cylinder 1. When this cylinder is moving the workpiece, the line pressure is low, but rises once the workpiece hits the end stop. The sequence valve opens once its inlet pressure rises above a preset level.

Cylinder 2 then operates to clamp the workpiece. A check valve across V 2 allows both cylinders to retract together.

Time delay valves
Pneumatic time delay valves (Figure 4.28) are used to delay operations where time-based sequences are required. Figure 4.28a shows construction of a typical valve. This is similar in construction to a 3/2 way pilot-operated valve, but the space above the main valve is comparatively large and pilot air is only allowed in via a flow reducing needle valve. There is thus a time delay between application of pilot pressure to port Z and the valve operation, as shown by the timing diagram in Figure 4.28b. The time delay is adjusted by the needle valve setting.

The built-in check valve causes the reservoir space above the valve to vent quickly when pressure at Z is removed to give no delay off.

The valve shown in Figure 4.28 is a normally-closed delay-on valve. Many other time delay valves (delay-off, delay on/off, normally- open) can be obtained. All use the basic principle of the air reservoir and needle valve.

The symbol of a normally-dosed time delay valve is shown in Figure 4.28c.

Proportional Valves
The solenoid valves described so far act, to some extent, like an electrical switch, i.e. they can be On or Off. In many applications it is required to remotely control speed, pressure or force via an electrical signal. This function is provided by proportional valves.

A typical two position solenoid is only required to move the spool between 0 and 100% stroke against the restoring force of a spring. To ensure predictable movement between the end positions the solenoid must also increase its force as the spool moves to ensure the solenoid force is larger than the increasing opposing
spring force at all positions.

A proportional valve has a different design requirement. The spool position can be set anywhere between 0% and 100% stroke by varying the solenoid current. To give a predictable response the solenoid must produce a force which is dependent solely on the

current and not on the spool position, i.e. the force for a given current must be constant over the full stroke range. Furthermore, the force must be proportional to the current.

Figure 4.29 shows a typical response. The force from the solenoid is opposed by the force from a restoring spring, and the spool will move to a position where the two forces are equal. With a current of 0.75 A, for example, the spool will move to 75% of its stroke.

The spool movement in a proportional valve is small; a few mm stroke is typical. The valves are therefore very vulnerable to stiction, and this is reduced by using a 'wet' design which immerses the solenoid and its core in hydraulic fluid.

A proportional valve should produce a fluid flow which is proportional to the spool displacement. The spools therefore use four triangular metering notches in the spool lands as shown on Figure 4.30. As the spool is moved to the right, port A will progressively link to the tank and port B to the pressure line.

The symbol for this valve is also shown. Proportional valves are drawn with parallel lines on the connection sides of the valve block on circuit diagrams.

Figure 4.30 gives equal flow rates to both A and B ports.Cylinders have different areas on the full bore and annulus sides

(see Figure 5.4). To achieve equal speeds in both directions, the notches on the lands must have different areas. With a 2:1 cylinder ratio, half the number of notches are used on one side.

Figure 4.31 shows the construction and symbol for a restricted centre position valve. Here the extended notches provide a restricted (typically 3%) flow to tank from the A and B ports when the valve is in the centre position.

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Types of Control Valves(Part 1)

Types of control valve
There are essentially three types of control valve; poppet valves, spool valves and rotary valves.

Poppet valves
In a poppet valve, simple discs, cones or balls are used in conjunction with simple valve seats to control flow. Figure 4.9 shows the construction and symbol of a simple 2/2 normally-closed valve, where depression of the pushbutton lifts the ball off its seat and

allows fluid to flow from port P to port A. When the button is released, spring and fluid pressure force the ball up again closing the valve.

Figure 4.10 shows the construction and symbol of a disc seal 3/2 poppet. With the pushbutton released, ports A and R are linked via the hollow pushbutton stem. If the pushbutton is pressed, port R is first sealed, then the valve disc pushed down to open the valve and connect ports P and A. As before, spring and fluid pressure from
port P closes the valve.

The valve construction and symbol shown in Figure 4.11 is a poppet changeover 4/2 valve using two stems and disc valves. With the pushbutton released, ports A and R are linked via the hollow left-hand stem and ports P and B linked via the normally-open right hand disc valve. When the pushbutton is pressed, the link between ports A and R is first closed, then the link between P and B closed.

The link between A and P is next opened, and finally the link between B and R opened. When the pushbutton is released, air and spring pressure puts the valve back to its original state.

Poppet valves are simple, cheap and robust, but it is generally simpler to manufacture valves more complicated than those shown in Figure 4.11 by using spool valves. Further, a major disadvantage of poppet valves is the force needed to operate them. In the poppet valve of Figure 4.10, for example, the force required on the pushbutton
to operate the valve is P x a newtons. Large capacity valves need large valve areas, leading to large operating force. The high pressure in hydraulic systems thus tends to prevent use of simple

poppet valves and they are, therefore, mainly found in low pressure pneumatic systems.

Spool valves
Spool (or slide) valves are constructed with a spool moving horizontally within the valve body, as shown for the 4/2 valve in Figure 4.12. Raised areas called 'lands' block or open ports to give the required operation.

The operation of a spool valve is generally balanced. In the valve construction in Figure 4.12b, for example, pressure is applied to opposing faces D and E and low tank pressure to faces F and G.

There is no net force on the spool from system pressure, allowing the spool to be easily moved.

Figure 4.13 is a changeover 4/2 spool valve. Comparison of the valves shown in Figures 4.12 and 4.13 shows they have the same body construction, the only difference being the size and position of lands on the spool. This is a major cost-saving advantage of spool valves; different operations can be achieved with a common body and different spools. This obviously reduces manufacturing costs.

Figure 4.14 shows various forms of three position changeover valves; note, again, these use one body with different functions achieved by different land patterns.
Spool valves are operated by shifting the spool. This can be achieved by button, lever or striker, or remotely with a solenoid.

Self-centring can easily be provided if springs are mounted at the end of the spool shaft.

Solenoid-operated valves commonly work at 24 V DC or 110 V AC. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. A DC power supply has to be provided for 24 V DC solenoids, which, in large systems, is substantial and costly. Operating current of a 24 V solenoid is higher than a 110 V solenoid's. Care must be taken with plant cabling to avoid voltage drops on return legs if a common single line return is used.

Current through a DC solenoid is set by the winding resistance. Current in an AC solenoid, on the other hand, is set by the inductance of the windings, and this is usually designed to give a high inrush current followed by low holding current. This is achieved by using the core of the solenoid (linked to the spool) to raise the coil inductance when the spool has moved. One side effect of this is that a jammed spool results in a permanent high current which can damage the coil or the device driving it.

Each and every AC solenoid should be protected by an individual fuse. DC solenoids do not suffer from this characteristic. A burned out DC solenoid coil is
almost unknown.

Whatever form of solenoid is used it is very useful when fault finding to have local electrical indication built into the solenoid plug top. This allows a fault to be quickly identified as either an electrical or hydraulic problem. Fault finding is discussed further in Chapter 8.

A solenoid can exert a pull or push of about 5 to 10 kg. This is adequate for most pneumatic spool valves, but is too low for direct operation of large capacity hydraulic valves. Here pilot operation must be used, a topic discussed later.

Rotary valves
Rotary valves consist of a rotating spool which aligns with holes in the valve casing to give the required operation. Figure 4.15 shows the construction and symbol of a typical valve with centre off action.

Rotary valves are compact, simple and have low operating forces. They are, however, low pressure devices and are consequently mainly used for hand operation in pneumatic systems.

Pilot-operated valves
With large capacity pneumatic valves (particularly poppet valves) and most hydraulic valves, the operating force required to move the valve can be large. If the required force is too large for a solenoid or manual operation, a two-stage process called pilot operation is used.

The principle is shown in Figure 4.16. Valve 1 is the main operating valve used to move a ram. The operating force required to move the valve, however, is too large for direct operation by a solenoid, so a second smaller valve 2, known as the pilot valve, has been added to allow the main valve to be operated

by system pressure. Pilot pressure lines are normally shown dotted in circuit diagrams, and pilot ports on main valves are denoted Z, Y, X and so on.

In Figure 4 16, pilot port Z is depressurised with the solenoid deenergised, and the ram is retracted. When the solenoid is energised valve 2 changes over, pressurising Z; causing valve 1 to energize and the ram to extend.

Although pilot operation can be achieved with separate valves it is more usual to use a pilot/main valve assembly manufactured as a complete ready made unit. Figure 4.17 shows the operation of a pilot-operated 3/2 pneumatic valve. The solenoid operates
the small pilot valve directly. Because this valve has a small area, a low operating force is required. The pilot valve applies line pressure to the top of the control valve causing it to move down, closing the exhaust port. When it contacts the main valve disc there are two forces acting on the valve stem. The pilot valve applies a downwards force of P x D, where P is the line pressure and D is the area of the control valve. Line pressure also applies an upwards force P x E to the stem, where E is the area of the main valve.

The area of the control valve, D, is greater than area of the main valve E, so the downwards force is the larger and the valve opens.

When the solenoid de-energises, the space above the control valve is vented. Line an spring pressure on the main valve causes the valve stem to rise again, venting port A.

A hydraulic 4/2 pilot-operated spool valve is shown in Figure4.18. The ends of the pilot spool in most hydraulic pilot-operated valves are visible from outside the valve. This is useful from a maintenance viewpoint as it allows the operation of a valve to be
checked. In extreme cases the valve can be checked by pushing the pilot spool directly with a suitably sized rod (welding rod is ideal !).

Care must be taken to check solenoid states on dual solenoid valves before attempting manual operation. Overriding an energised AC solenoid creates a large current which may damage the coil, (or blow the fuse if the solenoid has correctly installed protection).

Check valves
Check valves only allow flow in one direction and, as such, are similar in operation to electronic diodes. The simplest constructionis the ball and seat arrangement of the valve in Figure 4.19a, commonly used in pneumatic systems. The right angle construction in Figure 4.19b is better suited to the higher pressures of a hydraulic

system. Free flow direction is normally marked with an arrow on the valve casing.

A check valve is represented by the graphic symbols in Figure 4.20. The symbol in Figure 4.20a is rather complex and the simpler symbol in Figure 4.20b is more commonly used.

Figure 4.21 illustrates several common applications of check valves. Figure 4.21a shows a combination pump, used where an application requires large volume and low pressure, or low volume and high pressure. A typical case is a clamp required to engage quickly (high volume and low pressure) then grip (minimal volume but high pressure). Pump 1 is the high volume and low pressure pump, and pump 2 the high pressure pump. In high volume mode both pumps deliver to the system, pump 1 delivering through the check valve V 3. When high pressure is required, line pressure at X rises operating unloading valve V 1 via pilot port Z taking pump 1 off load. Pump 2 delivers the required pressure set by relief valve V 2, with the check valve preventing fluid leaking back to pump 1 and V1.

Figure 4.21b shows a hydraulic circuit with a pressure storage device called an accumulator (described in a later chapter). Here a check valve allows the pump to unload via the pressure regulating valve, while still maintaining system pressure from the accumulator.

A spring-operated check valve requires a small pressure to open (called the cracking pressure) and acts to some extent like a low pressure relief valve. This characteristic can be used to advantage.

In Figure 4.21c pilot pressure is derived before a check valve, and in Figure 4.21 d a check valve is used to protect a blocked filter by diverting flow around the filter when pressure rises. A check valve is also included in the tank return to prevent fluid being sucked out of the tank when the pump is turned off.

Pilot-operated check valves
The cylinder in the system in Figure 4.22 should, theoretically, hold position when the control valve is in its centre, off, position. In practice, the cylinder will tend to creep because of leakage in the control valve.

Check valves have excellent sealage in the closed position, but a simple check valve cannot be used in the system in Figure 4.22 because flow is required in both directions. A pilot-operated check is similar to a basic check valve but can be held open permanently by application of an external pilot pressure signal.

There are two basic forms of pilot-operated check valves, shown in Figure 4.23. They operate in a similar manner to basic check valves, but with pilot pressure directly opening the valves. In the 4C valve shown in Figure 4.23a, inlet pressure assists the pilot. The

symbol of a pilot-operated check valve is shown in Figure 4.23c. The cylinder application of Figure 4.22 is redrawn with pilot operated check valves in Figure 4.23d. The pilot lines are connected to the pressure line feeding the other side of the cylinder. For any cylinder movement, one check valve is held open by flow (operating
as a normal check valve) and the other is held open by pilot pressure. For no required movement, both check valves are closed and the cylinder is locked in position.

Restriction check valves
The speed of a hydraulic or pneumatic actuator can be controlled by adjusting the rate at which a fluid is admitted to, or allowed out from, a device. This topic is discussed in more detail in Chapter 5 but a speed control is often required to be direction-sensitive and this requires the inclusion of a check valve.

A restriction check valve (often called a throttle relief valve in pneumatics) allows full flow in one direction and a reduced flow in the other direction. Figure 4.24a shows a simple hydraulic valve and Figure 4.24b a pneumatic valve. In both, a needle valve sets restricted flow to the required valve. The symbol of a restriction
check valve is shown in Figure 4.24c.

Figure 4.24d shows a typical application in which the cylinder extends at full speed until a limit switch makes, then extend further at low speed. Retraction is at full speed.

A restriction check valve V 2 is fitted in one leg of the cylinder. With the cylinder retracted, limit-operated valve V 3 is open allowing free flow of fluid from the cylinder as it extends. When the striker plate on the cylinder ram hits the limit, valve V 3 closes and flow out of the cylinder is now restricted by the needle valve setting
of valve V 2. In the reverse direction, the check valve on valve V 2 opens giving full speed of retraction.

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Introduction to Control Valves (symbols)

Pneumatic and hydraulic systems require control valves to direct and regulate the flow of fluid from compressor or pump to the various load devices. Although there are significant practical differences between pneumatic and hydraulic devices (mainly arising from differences in operating pressures and types of seals needed for gas or liquid) the operating principles and descriptions are very similar.
Although valves are used for many purposes, there are essentially only two types of valve. An infinite position valve can take up any position between open and closed and, consequently, can be used to modulate flow or pressure. Relief valves described in earlier chapters are simple infinite position valves.
Most control valves, however, are only used to allow or block flow of fluid. Such valves are called finite position valves. An analogy between the two types of valve is the comparison between an electric light dimmer and a simple on/off switch.
Connections to a valve are termed 'ports'. A simple on/off valve therefore has two
ports. Most control valves, however, have four ports shown in hydraulic and pneumatic forms in Figure 4.1.
In both the load is connected to ports labelled A, B and the pressure supply (from pump or compressor) to port E In the hydraulic valve, fluid is returned to the tank from port T. In the pneumatic valve return air is vented from port R.
Figure 4.2 shows internal operation of valves. To extend the ram, ports P and B are connected to deliver fluid and ports A and T connected to return fluid. To retract the ram, ports P and A are connected to deliver fluid and ports B and T to return fluid.

Another consideration is the number of control positions. Figure 4.3 shows two possible control schemes. In Figure 4.3a, the ram is controlled by a lever with two positions; extend or retract. This valve has two control positions (and the ram simply drives to one end or other of its stroke). The valve in Figure 4.3b has three positions;
extend, off, retract. Not surprisingly the valve in Figure 4.3a is called a two position valve, while that in Figure 4.3b is a three position valve.

Finite position valves are commonly described as a port/position valve where port is the number of ports and position is the number of positions. Figure 4.3a therefore illustrates a 4/2 valve, and Figure 4.3b shows a 4/3 valve. A simple block/allow valve is a 2/2 valve.

The numbers of ports and positions does not, however, completely describe the valve. We must also describe its action. Figure 4.4 shows one possible action for the 4/3 valve of Figure 4.3b.
Extend and retract connections are similar, but in the off position ports P and T are connected-unloading the pump back to the tank without need of a separate loading valve, while leaving the ram locked in position. (This approach could, of course, only be used where the pump supplies one load). Other possible arrangements may block all four ports in the off position (to maintain pressure), or connect ports A, B and T (to leave the ram free in the off position).
A complete valve description thus needs number of ports, number of positions and the control action.

Graphic symbols
Simple valve symbols have been used so far to describe control actions. From the discussions in the previous section it can be seen that control actions can easily become too complex for representation by sketches showing how a valve is constructed.

A set of graphic symbols has therefore evolved (similar, in principle, to symbols used on electrical circuit diagrams). These show component function without showing the physical construction of each device. A 3/2 spool valve and a 3/2 rotary valve with the same function have the same symbol; despite their totally different constructions.

Symbols are described in various national documents; DIN24300, BS2917, ISO1219 and the new ISO5599, CETOP RP3 plus the original American JIC and ANSI symbols. Differences between these are minor.

A valve is represented by a square for each of its switching positions. Figure 4.5a thus shows the symbol of a two position valve, and Figure 4.5b a three position valve. Valve positions can be represented by letters a, b, c and so on, with 0 being used for a central neutral position.

Ports of a valve are shown on the outside of boxes in normal unoperated or initial position. Four ports have been added to the two position valve symbol shown in Figure 4.5c. Designations given to ports are normally:

Port Designation
Working lines A, B, C and so on

Pressure (power) supply P

Exhaust/Return R, S, T and so on

Control (Pilot) Lines (T normally used for hydraulic systems, R and S for
pneumatic systems) Z, Y, X and so on

ISO 5599 proposes to replace these letters with numbers, a retrograde step in the author's opinion.

Arrow-headed lines represent direction of flow. In Figure 4.6a, for example fluid is delivered from port P to port A and returned from port B to port T when the valve is in its normal state a. In state b, flow is reversed. This valve symbol corresponds to the valve represented in Figures 4.2 and 4.3a.

Shut off positions are represented by "r, as shown by the central position of the valve in Figure 4.6b, and internal flow paths can be represented as shown in Figure 4.6c. This latter valve, incidentally, vents the load in the off position.

In pneumatic systems, lines commonly vent to atmosphere directly at the valve, as shown by port R in Figure 4.6d.

Figure 4.7a shows symbols for the various ways in which valves can be operated. Figure 4.7b thus represents a 4/2 valve operated by a pushbutton. With the pushbutton depressed the ram extends. With the pushbutton released, the spring pushes the valve to position a and the ram retracts.

Actuation symbols can be combined. Figure 4.7c represents asolenoid-operated 4/3 valve, with spring return to centre.
Infinite position valve symbols are shown in Figure 4.8. A basic valve is represented by a single square as shown in Figure 4.8a, with the valve being shown in a normal, or non-operated, position.

Control is shown by normal actuation symbols" in Figure 4.8b, for example, the spring pushes the valve right decreasing flow, and pilot pressure pushes the valve left increasing flow. This represents a pressure relief valve which would be connected into a hydraulic system as shown in Figure 4.8c.

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Cooling Towers

Before the development of cooling towers, rivers, lakes, and cooling ponds were required to supply cooling. Through the development of the mechanical draft cooling tower, as little as one square foot of area is needed for every 1000 square feet required for a cooling pond or lake.

Cooling towers minimize the thermal pollution of the natural water heat sinks and allow the reuse of circulating water. An example of the manner in which a cooling tower can fit into a system is shown in Figure 10.

The cooling of the water in a cooling tower is accomplished by the direct contact of water and air. This cooling effect is provided primarily by an exchange of latent heat of vaporization resulting from evaporation of a small amount of water and by a transfer of sensible heat, which raises the temperature of the air. The heat transferred from the water to the air is dissipated to the atmosphere.

*Induced Draft Cooling Towers
Induced draft cooling towers, illustrated in Figure 11, are constructed such that the incoming circulating water is dispersed throughout the cooling tower via a spray header. The spray is directed down over baffles that are designed to maximize the contact between water and air. The air is drawn through the baffled area by large circulating fans and causes the evaporation and the cooling of the water.

The nomenclature for induced draft cooling towers, including some items not illustrated in Figure 11 is summarized below.

Casing - The casing encloses the walls of the cooling tower, exclusive of fan deck and louvers.

Collecting basin - The collecting basin is a receptacle beneath the cooling tower for collecting the water cooled by the cooling tower. It can be made of concrete, wood, metal, or an alternative material.
Certain necessary accessories are required such as sump, strainers, overflow, drain, and a makeup system.

Drift eliminators - The drift eliminators are parallel blades of PVC, wood, metal,
or an alternative material arranged on the air discharge side of the fill to remove entrained water droplets from the leaving air stream.

- The driver is a device that supplies power to turn the fan. It is usually an electric motor, but turbines and internal combustion engines are occasionally used.

Drive shaft - The drive shaft is a device, including couplings, which transmits power from the driver to the speed reducer.

Fan - The fan is a device used to induce air flow through the cooling tower.

Fan deck - The fan deck is a horizontal surface enclosing the top of the cooling tower above the plenum that serves as a working platform for inspection and maintenance.

Fan stack - The fan stack is a cylinder enclosing the fan, usually with an eased inlet and an expanding discharge for increased fan efficiency.

Fill - The fill is PVC, wood, metal, or an alternative material that provides extended water surface exposure for evaporative heat transfer.

Intake louvers - The intake louvers are an arrangement of horizontal blades at the air inlets that prevent escape of falling water while allowing the entry of air.

Makeup valve - The makeup valve is a valve that introduces fresh water into the collection basin to maintain the desired collecting basin water level.

Overflow-The overflow is a drain that prevents the collecting basin from overflowing.

Partition - The partition is a baffle within a multicell cooling tower that is used to prevent air and/or water flow between adjacent cells.

Plenum - The plenum is the internal cooling tower area between the drift eliminators and the fans.

Speed reducer - The speed reducer is a right-angle gear box that transmits power to the fan while reducing the driver speed to that required for optimal fan performance.

Sump - The sump is a depressed portion of the collecting basin from which cold water is drawn to be returned to the connected system. The sump usually contains strainer screens, antivortex devices, and a drain or cleanout connection.

Distribution system - The distribution system is that portion of a cooling tower that distributes water over the fill area. It usually consists of one or more flanged inlets, flow control valves, internal headers, distribution basins, spray branches, metering orifices, and other related components.

*Forced Draft Cooling Towers
Forced draft cooling towers are very similar to induced draft cooling towers. The primary difference is that the air is blown in at the bottom of the tower and exits at the top. Forced draft cooling towers are the forerunner to induced draft cooling towers. Water distribution problems and recirculation difficulties discourage the use of forced draft cooling towers.

*Natural Convection Cooling Towers
Natural convection cooling towers, illustrated in Figure 12, use the principle of convective flow to provide air circulation. As the air inside the tower is heated, it rises through the tower. This process draws more air in, creating a natural air flow to provide cooling of the water. The basin at the bottom of the tower is open to the atmosphere. The cooler, more dense air outside the tower will flow in at the bottom and contribute to the air circulation within the tower. The air circulation will be self perpetuating due to the density difference between the warmer air inside and the cooler air outside.

The incoming water is sprayed around the circumference of the tower and cascades to the bottom. The natural convection cooling towers are much larger than the forced draft cooling towers and cost much more to construct. Because of space considerations and cost, natural convection cooling towers are built less frequently than other types.


The cooling tower removes heat from water used in cooling systems within the plant. The heat is released to the air rather than to a lake or stream. This allows facilities to locate in areas with less water available because the cooled water can be recycled. It also aids environmental efforts by not contributing to thermal pollution.

Induced draft cooling towers use fans to create a draft that pulls air through the cooling tower fill. Because the water to be cooled is distributed such that it cascades over the baffles, the air blows through the water, cooling it.

Forced draft cooling towers blow air in at the bottom of the tower. The air exits at the top of the tower. Water distribution and recirculation difficulties limit their use.

Natural convection cooling towers function on the basic principle that hot air rises. As the air inside the tower is heated, it rises through the tower. This process draws more air in, creating a natural air flow to provide cooling of the water.
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