A SPUR GEAR
is cylindrical in shape, with teeth on the outer
circumference that are straight and parallel to the axis (hole).
There are a number of variations of the basic spur gear,
including pinion wire, stem pinions, rack and internal gears.
(See Figure 1.17)
is a long wire or rod that has been drawn
through a die so that gear teeth are cut into its surface.
It can be made into small gears with different face widths,
hubs, and bores. Pinion wire is stocked in 4 ft. lengths.
(See Figure 1.18)
are bore-less spur gears with small numbers of
teeth cut on the end of a ground piece of shaft. They are
especially suited as pinions when large reductions are
desired. (See Figure 1.19)
are yet another type of spur gear. Unlike the basic spur
gear, racks have their teeth cut into the surface of a straight
bar instead of on the surface of a cylindrical blank. Rack is
sold in two, four and six foot lengths, depending on pitch,
which you will learn about starting in chapter 2.
(See Figure 1.20)
have their teeth cut parallel to their shafts
like spur gears, but they are cut on the inside of the gear blank.
(See Figure 1.21)
A helical gear is similar to a spur gear except that the teeth
of a helical gear are cut at an angle (known as the helix
angle) to the axis (or hole). Helical gears are made in both
right and left hand configurations. Opposite hand helical
gears run on parallel shafts. Gears of the same hand operate
with shafts at 90-degrees. (See Figure 1.22, 1.23, 1.24, 1.25)
A bevel gear is shaped like a section of a cone and usually operates
on shafts at 90-degrees. The teeth of a bevel gear may be straight
or spiral. If they are spiral, the pinion and gear must be of opposite
hand in order for them to run together. Bevel gears, in contrast
to miter gears (see below), provide a ratio (reduce speed) so the
pinion always has fewer teeth. (See Figure 1.26, 1.27)
Miter gears are identical to bevel gears except that in a miter
gear set, both gears always have the same number of teeth.
Their ratio, therefore, is always 1 to 1. As a result, miter gears
are not used when an application calls for a change of speed.
(See Figure 1.28, 1.29)
WORMS & WORM GEARS
WORM Worms are a type of gear with one or more cylindrical
threads or “starts” (that resemble screw threads) and a face that
is usually wider than its diameter. A worm gear has a center
hole (bore) for mounting the worm on a shaft. (See Figure 1.30A)
WORM GEARS – like worms – also are usually cylindrical and
have a center hole for mounting on a shaft. The diameter of
a worm gear, however, is usually much greater than the
width of its face. Worm gears differ from spur gears in that
their teeth are somewhat different in shape, and they are
always formed on an angle to the axis to enable them to
mate with worms. (See Figure 1.30B)
Worms and worm gears work in sets, rotating on shafts at right
angles to each other, in order to transmit motion and power
at various speeds and speed ratios. In worm and worm gear sets,
both the worm and worm gear are of the same hand. (Because
right- hand gearing is considered standard, right-hand sets will
always be furnished unless otherwise specified.) (See Figure 1.30)